Fomitopsis cajanderi (Rhodofomes cajanderi) -healing inquiries –

(Fomitopsis: To heat or cherish “fovere”


poultice “fomentum” Rhodo: Rose-colored)

The Rosy Polypore

Some mushrooms are seen, and it is decided that there is something exclusively unique about them based on their beauty. The striking qualities of the Red Reishi with it’s varnished surface, and the Turkey Tail with its adornment of various alternating colors, have infused passerby’s with an idea that they must behold strong medicine. However, what happens when we go through life only focusing on the seemingly beautiful things, on the brightly colored splendiferous things, and do not take a moment to see the dark and explore the medicine in the seemingly unknown. There is strong medicine in the obscure, in the mushrooms, people and plants that may not show themselves luminous right away. It takes someone who is curious and who is willing to take the time to explore something deeper than surface, and to know that there is magic in everything, there is medicine everywhere, you just need to be inquisitive and unafraid of the unknown. In alchemy, preparations are made in order to extract and isolate the essentials of the organism being worked with, to uncover the ‘mistakes of nature’ and get to the core of the organism This practice teaches that there is more to all organisms than what the eye allows you to see. All things, all beings, are intended to be fully seen, and fully explored. What is seen on the surface does not usually express the crypts of our soul, and instead of looking away, we must look deeper. Same is true for seeing all living organisms, and in this case, Fomitopsis cajanderi is the chosen entity to be explored.


Saprophytic on the dead wood of conifers and sometimes parasitic on living trees, grows most usually with others. Widely found throughout North American conifer forests.

Active known constituents

(none known, but this is what I theorize – HPLC analysis will be done on various extracts in the near future, I will amend info when that happens)

  • Triterpenes
  • Ergosterol
  • Beta-glucans
  • Phenolics

Spore print – off white

KOH – black

Therapeutic actions

cytotoxic to lymphocytic leukemia cells (in vitro), immune-modulating (most-likely), digestive bitter


warming, sweet, tonic

Recent Research

Cytotoxic Effects of Hot Ethanol Extract and Hot Aqueous Extract of Fomitopsis cajanderi on Jurkat Cell Line

Anna Sitkoff, Olivia Froehlich


Acute lymphocytic leukemia has an incidence of about 3.4 cases per 100,000 in the United States, and each year 2,500 to 3,500 new cases of ALL are diagnosed in children. Of these cases, 15% are precursor T Lymphoblastic leukemia. Those with T cell ALL have been shown to have a high rate of remission failure and a poor overall survival as compared to B cell ALL.2,3 The Jurkat cells are a line of T lymphocytic leukemia cells. Of the new ALL cases diagnosed in children, 70-80% of them participate in clinical research trials, indicating the importance of continuing research on this cell line and potential new therapies.5

Polysaccharides and secondary metabolites produced by plants and mushrooms have been found to be a critical role in research conducted on the medicinal value of these organisms. Mushrooms are known to produce triterpene secondary metabolites and polysaccharides as an essential piece of their chitin cell wall structure. Polysaccharides and triterpenes have different, yet well researched actions on the immune system, both in vitro and in vivo. Mushroom polysaccharides, specifically beta-glucans and protein polysaccharide complexes, stimulate production of cytokines IL-12, IFN –y, and IL-2.8 IFN-y and IL-2 are of specific importance in cancer research because they stimulate natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) which have antitumor effects. While polysaccharides stimulate an immune response, triterpenes directly induce cancer cell apoptosis.6 There is not yet research on Fomitopsis cajanderi, a member of the Fomitopsidaceae family, though there is some research on two other mushrooms of the same genus, Fomitopsis pinicola and Fomitopsis nigra. Fomitopside K, a lanostane triterpene glycoside extracted from F. nigra, induced apoptosis via G0/GI phase arrest in oral squamous cell carcinoma.1 F. pinicola has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial effects. F. pinicola ethanol extract has been shown to have an anticancer effect on S180 cells in vitro and in vivo, to induce ROS-dependent apoptosis, and to cause P53 mediated G1 phase arrest in human colorectal cancer cells.7 F. cajanderi is not currently vulnerable to overharvesting. The more mushrooms we know to have similar effects, the less overharvesting we do of individual species. The aim of this study is to see if this, as of yet, un-researched species of Fomitopsis, F. cajanderi, has similar medicinal properties as the other, more researched, mushrooms of this genus. The hypothesis of this particular study is that both the hot water and hot ethanol extracts of the fruiting body of F. cajanderi will show dose dependent cytotoxicity on Jurkat cells, with the hot ethanol extract showing greater cytotoxic effects.


Collection and preparation of Fomitopsis cajanderi     The fresh Fomitopsis cajanderi was collected in January 2017 from St. Edward’s State Park in Kenmore, Washington (latitude ~47.7328° N, longitude ~122.2572° W).  The mushrooms were identified and harvested by Anna Sitkoff.  The mushrooms were then cleaned, chopped, dehydrated, and powdered in Bastyr University’s Botanical Medicine Lab. The mushrooms were chopped to 1cm2 pieces and weighed 195g. The specimans were placed in an Excaliber dehydrator at 46.1 degrees Celsius for 24 hours. The mushrooms were taken out of the dehydrator and weighed 64g. They were then placed in a Taiwanese grinder until a semi-powdered fibrous material was achieved. The material was stored in two separate Ziploc bags and stored in the Tierney Lab.

Preparation of hot ethanol extraction (FcETOH)     The hot ethanol extraction was done in a fume hood using a reflux apparatus with a cold thumb condenser. 4g of mushroom material was weighed and placed in 250mL boiling flask with 200mL of 95% ethanol. The heating mantle was on the 5 setting to boil and then reduced to 4 with ethanol simmering for 2 hours. Refrigeration for cold water bath used for condenser was set to 12 degrees Celsius. The final extract was poured into a 50mL conical and centrifuged at 3890 RPM for 15 minutes. A .2micron steriflip filter was used to filter the extract.

To concentrate the extract a rotary evaporator machine was used. The water bath was filled half way and set to 80 degrees Celsius. 90mL of FcETOH was placed into a 250mL round bottom flask, and spun hovering over the hot water bath. After 15 minutes, the flask as lowered into the bath and spun for another 15 minutes. The remaining amount of extract measured 9mL. The resulting FcETOH was 9.5% ethanol and a 1:2.25 extract. Extract was stored at 4 degrees Celsius.

Preparation of hot water decoction (FcHWE)     The hot water decoction was made in Bastyr University’s Botanical Medicine Lab.  The 10g F. cajanderi material was placed in 350mL of distilled water in a sterilized metal sauce pan.  The decoction ran for 2 hours partially covered, 50mL more H2O was added at the beginning of the second hour. The decoction was strained using a sterilized potato-ricer and the marc was composted. The extract was then placed back on heat to reduce to 50mL for a 1:5 extract. The extract was filtered through a .2micron steriflip filter and stored at 4 degrees Celsius.

Cell culture     RPMI-1640 + 10% FBS + 1:100 L-Glu media was made on 01/04/17.  Jurkat cells were labeled E6.1, passage 5, cells in one vial: 5×106 cells/mL and found in Cryotank 2014, quadrant 2, cane 9, box 50, row 6, column A.  They were frozen by M. Sasagawa on 10/02/2001. They were removed from the cryotank for culture on 01/23/17. Cells continued in culture to maintain cells in log growth phase. The concentration of the cells that were used for the XTT assay were 4×105 cells/mL. .1mL of cells were placed into treatment wells on a 96 U-bottom well plate.

XTT assay protocol     On Day 1, a 4×105 cells/mL concentration was brought up in clear media. 100 micoliters of the cell solution was pipetted into 60 wells. 8 serial dilutions in clear media starting at a 20% concentration were made for both the FcETOH and FcHWE as well as their respective controls. The control for the FcETOH was 9.5% ETOH and the control for FcHWE was distilled H20. 0.1mL of extract and control dilutions were added to the 0.1mL cells in triplicates. 0.1mL of 2% solution of 50mmol curcumin/dmp was also added as a positive cytotoxic control in triplicates. 200 microliters of clear media were placed in each of the surrounding wells to act as a evaporation buffer. Plate was placed in the incubator set at 37 degrees Celsius and 5% CO2.

Day 2—continued incubation.

On Day 3, the plate was spun at 750 rpm for 5 minutes.  The media was aspirated off of the 6×11 block of wells using a micropipette tip on glass tube vacuum.  Cells were rinsed by adding 200 microliters of PBS to the 6×11 block of wells and spun at 750 rpm for 5 minutes. PBS was aspirated off and the rinse was repeated once more for a total of two cell rinsings. The 200 microliters of clear media were aspirated from each of the surrounding wells and replaced with 100 microliters of fresh clear media.  The XTT assay solution was made and 100 microliters of it were added to each the wells within the 6×11 block.  The plate incubated for 3 hours.  After this time, the plate was covered with foil to avoid light reaction and placed on an agitator for 15 minutes.  It was then read on a microplate reader using SoftMax Pro.


XTT assay interpretation is based on light absorbency with lower values indicating less live cells present (i.e. greater cytotoxic effects).   Figure 1 shows increasing cytotoxicity from FcHWE2, with FcHWE1 having the greatest cytotoxicity when compared to the control.  Figure 2 shows dose dependent cytotoxicity of the FcETOH when compared to the control.  See conclusion for explanation on absorbency readings of FcETOH1-4.


Positive cell death control of curcumin     Reading of an XTT assay involves measuring light or color absorbency at 492 nm and 650 nm with higher values, or more color present, indicating viable cells.  Curcumin is bright yellow, which poses a problem for a cell death/cell viability assay that relies on light or color absorbency for its values.  The cells were rinsed with PBS and spun twice in an attempt to remove as much of the curcumin as possible and to avoid false readings.  However, Figures 1 and 2 both demonstrate that curcumin had the highest light or color absorbency, which is exactly opposite of what is expected for positive cell death.  It is suspected that there was some sort of cell death by the curcumin, but its residual color produced high values during the analysis of the XTT assay.  This being said, there is essentially a lack of a genuine reading for known positive cell death for this experiment.  In future research involving an XTT assay, a different, colorless positive cell death control should be used.

Absorbency of the FcETOH preparation at increasing concentration     Similar to the issue regarding the positive cell death control of curcumin, the FcETOH extract initially showed lower XTT values starting at the 2nd most dilute preparation (cytotoxicity), but then showed gradually higher XTT values started at FcETOH5 (Figure 2).  While preparing the plates, it was noted that the three highest concentration preparations of FcETOH reacted with the clear media containing the Jurkat cells upon combination, resulting in a cloudy solution.  This was observed in the first XTT assay (not discussed).  In an attempt to prevent this cloudiness from interfering with the light absorbency of the XTT assay, the cells were rinsed with PBS and spun twice.  Figure 2 shows that there was gradual increasing absorbency starting at FcETOH4, a finding that supports the thought that the cloudiness would interfere with the analysis.  During the two cell rinses, the presence of cell pellets were not visible for the three highest FcETOH concentrations as they were for the blanks and the ETOH control wells.  Therefore, it is likely possible that the highest concentrations of FcETOH had continually or completely effective cytotoxicity on the Jurkat cells, but the reaction between the preparation and media prevented the XTT assay from supporting these claims.


There were dose dependent cytotoxic effects of both the FcETOH and FcHWE preparations compared to their respective controls. FcETOH showed higher dose dependent cytotoxicity than FcHWE preparations. This result is concurrent with the hypothesis that the hot ethanol extract would have more direct cytotoxicity because of the triterpene extraction (triterpenes have been found to have a direct cytotoxic effect6,7) typical of most hot ethanol mushroom extracts. Further research needs to be done exploring the direct mechanism of cytotoxicity with this specific mushroom extract. Most of what is known of aqueous extracts involves their extraction of polysaccharides which are typically indirectly cytotoxic by inducing cytokine production. Therefore, further studies need to explore if the FcHWE cytotoxic effect is direct or from stimulating IFN-y and IL-2 production. HPLC analysis should be done on both the FcETOH and FcHWE to explore specific constituents of F. cajanderi and specifically to determine if it contains the cytotoxic lanostane triterpene glycosides as related species do.


Screen Shot 2017-03-18 at 11.59.18 AM

Figure 1. Cytotoxic effects of FcHWE on Jurket cells starting at the 2nd most concentrated preparation. Jurkat cells were treated with triplicates of 8 serial dilutions of FcHWE and its distilled water control for 48 hours.  XTT assay solution was added and incubated for 3 hours.  Absorbency was read at 650 nm and 492 nm with higher values indicating cell viability. Numbers displayed correspond to respective absorbency values.

Screen Shot 2017-03-18 at 11.59.28 AM

Figure 2. Cytotoxic effects of FcETOH on Jurket cells starting at the 2nd most dilute preparation. Jurkat cells were treated with triplicates of 8 serial dilutions of FcETOH and its 9.5% ETOH control for 48 hours.  XTT assay solution was added and incubated for 3 hours.  Absorbency was read at 650 nm and 492 nm with higher values indicating cell viability. Numbers displayed correspond to respective absorbency values.

Screen Shot 2017-03-18 at 11.59.37 AM

Figure 3. Comparison of cytotoxic effects of FcETOH and FcHWE with FcETOH being having increased cytotoxic effects. Both plates for FcETOH and FcHWE were prepared and read in the same fashion.  The FcETOH showed dramatically decreased absorbency starting at the 2nd most dilute preparation while the FcHWE only started showing decreased absorbency at the 2nd most concentrated preparation. Numbers displayed correspond to respective absorbency values.

Work Cited

  1. Bhattarai G, Lee Y-H, Lee N-H, et al. Fomitoside-K from Fomitopsis nigra Induces Apoptosis of Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas (YD-10B) via Mitochondrial Signaling Pathway. Biol Pharm Bull. 2012;35(10):1711-1719. doi:10.1248/bpb.12-00297.
  2. Coustan-Smith E, Mullighan CG, Onciu M, et al. Early T-cell precursor leukaemia: a subtype of very high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Lancet Oncol. 2009;10(2):147-156. doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(08)70314-0.
  3. Inukai T, Kiyokawa N, Campana D, et al. Clinical significance of early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: Results of the Tokyo Children’s Cancer Study Group Study L99-15. Br J Haematol. 2012;156(3):358-365. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2141.2011.08955.x.
  4. Lee IK, Jung JY, Yeom JH, et al. Fomitoside K, a new lanostane triterpene glycoside from the fruiting body of Fomitopsis nigra. Mycobiology. 2012;40(1):76-78. doi:10.5941/MYCO.2012.40.1.076.
  5. Pui C-H, Yang JJ, Hunger SP, et al. Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Progress Through Collaboration. J Clin Oncol. 2015;33(27):JCO.2014.59.1636. doi:10.1200/JCO.2014.59.1636.
  6. Ríos JL. Effects of triterpenes on the immune system. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;128(1):1-14. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2009.12.045.
  7. Wang Y, Cheng X, Wang P, et al. Investigating migration inhibition and apoptotic effects of Fomitopsis pinicola chloroform extract on human colorectal cancer SW-480 cells. PLoS One. 2014;9(7):1-13. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0101303.
  8. Wasser S. Medicinal mushrooms as a source of antitumor and immunomodulating polysaccharides. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2003;60(3):258-274. doi:10.1007/s00253-002-1076-7.

Trametes versicolor and Beyond

Medicinal Value of Further Trametes spp.

Slogging around the dense northwest forest and in your periphery rests a nearly bare, fallen log. It is nude accept for the adornment of a troop of thin, layered polypore mushrooms. It is hard to tell from where you stand exactly which species this log beholds. At this point, there is that hope that this would be an especially auspicious amble in the woods, and that it would be the fruiting body of the great Turkey Tail mushrooms. With fingers crossed, you traverse the trail and walk towards the fungal bouquet. After stepping through the thick humus and crawling under fallen trees, you arrive at this mysterious cluster of mushrooms. The initial instinct is to look closely at the attractive pileus, and take note if there are alternating striations of colors, and within these striations, if there are alternating hirsute and silken layers. Next, you touch the body of this terrestrial being to take notice of its thickness and rigidity. Is it thick, or thin, bendy or stiff? Finally, you look for the pearly white pore surface on the caudal surface of the mushroom. You look to see if you notice the pores, if they are big enough to see or if they are so tiny that this surface looks entirely smooth. After this thorough inspection, you look at these elegant polypore mushrooms with disappointment. The pileus is a pearly white and seems continuously hirsute, the body feels thicker than you expected, and the pore surface is not as smooth as you wished it to be. Still, you recognize the brilliance, but leave the mushrooms be and continue along with your walk.

This was my story on numerous occasions. Though, the more I studied the mycomedicinals, the more my curiosities grew around the medicinal uses of other species of the Trametes genus. Fortunately, others had this curiosity as well. Here, I hope to give information of the modern research and traditional uses of four species of Trametes fungi that are found here in the Pacific Northwest. I will discuss Trametes hirsuta, Trametes ochracea, Trametes versicolor, and Trametes pubescens. I also added a bit of information on the False Turkey Tail, Stereum ostrea. These mushrooms are all common and widespread in boreal and temperate regions in the northern hemisphere.

Trametes hirsuta (One who is thin, hairy)

trametes hirsuta


Distribution and Natural Habitat

White rot mushroom found on the deadwood of hardwoods, usually found growing in clusters on logs and stumps. Fruiting in Summer and Fall. I usually find these mushrooms on logs by a river or stream.

Cap (pileus)

Semicircular, often kidney shaped. Other caps of adjacent mushrooms are sometimes fused. Hairy throughout, contrasting zones of different shades of grey and white.

Pore Surface

Whitish, tingeing yellow with age.

Spore Print


Active known constituents

Polysaccharides, (Beta Glucans), flavonoids

Therapeutic actions

Immune-modulating, immune-stimulating, styptic, Antioxidant, Genoprotective

Medicinal Properties

  • Aqueous extract Improves macrophage phagocytic activity
  • Immunomodulation activity from enhancing the number of vitality in Natural Killer cells, (NK cells)
  • Polysaccharides from T. hirsuta induced NK cell activation and significantly increased NK cell mediated cytotoxicity. This study1 explained; “NK cells begin to proliferate and secrete cytokines as a means of communication with other components of the immune system, in particular T cells. NK cells are best known for their capacity to kill tumor cells and there is evidence for their role in controlling infection in the earliest phases of body’s immune responses.”
  • Genoprotective activity of mushroom extracts are based on the reduction of oxidative damages of DNA. There is an abundance of free radicals in the environment associated with oxidative stress and as this paper2 explains, is the basis of aging and the initiation and progress of various diseases.
  • The fruiting body extract at the concentration of 20.0 mg mL -1 showed a genotoxic effect and DNA damage in cells was significantly less compared with the control. This was found to be dose dependent, and at lower concentrations, there was no significant genotoxic effect.
  • Antioxidant, free radical scavenging activity of 59% reduction of radicals.

Trametes Ochracea (One who is thin, yellowish-orange color)


Distribution and Natural Habitat

See T. hirsuta. Annual, slow to decay, usually found all year round, I have found they are more rotten around early spring and freshest looking in the Fall an Winter, which is when they release their spores.

Cap (pileus)

Different shades of orange and ochre in concentric zones, often with a stripe of white at the edge. Semicircular, or bell shapes, entire surface is covered with a thin fuzz. Caps are typically 1.5-5cm across and often overlap with other fruiting bodies of the same species.

 Pore Surface

Creamy ochre with roundish pores 1-4mm deep, spaced 3-4 pores per mm. Stains more significantly than other trametes sp. when bruised.

Spore Print


Active known constituents3

Saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids, phenols, tannins

Therapeutic actions

Anti-inflammatory, Cytotoxic, Antioxidant, Hypocholesterolemic

Medicinal Properties3,4

  • Methanol extracts showed significant proton donating ability and could serve as free radical inhibitors as a primary antioxidant.
  • Antioxidant activity significantly comparable to major antioxidants; Tocopherol and ascorbic acid.
  • High flavonoid content suggests an important role of stabilizing lipid oxidation
  • One cause of inflammation is the denaturation of proteins. The anti-inflammatory activity of T. ochracea was tested by assessing membrane stabilization using the red blood cell membrane. The methanol extract was effective at inhibitting the heat induced hemolysis. It is thought that this is from the presence of phytochemicals in the extract that inhibit the release of lysosomal content of neutrophils at the site of inflammation.
  • Slightly less effective but comparable to Asiprin in membrane stabilization and proteinase inhibition.
  • Methanol extract exhibited acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.
  • Methanol extract induced mitotic activity by reducing cell division suggesting further research for possible use as an antitumor therapy.
  • Addition of T. ochracea extract to hyperlipidemic diets was found to significantly decrease the risk of atherosclerosis by decreaseing cholesterol levels.



Trametes pubescens (one who is thin, hairy)


Distribution and Natural Habitat

Same as T. hirsuta

Cap (pileus)

Up to 8 cm across and 5cm deep. Semicircular, irregular bracket shape, sometimes fusing with other caps laterally and caudally. Velvety, though sometimes becoming bald with age. Usually cream and light gray in color. Faint textural zones, no obvious color zoning.

Pore Surface

Creamy, yellowish with age, 3-5 angular pores per mm

Spore Print


Active known constituents

Laccase, Beta glucans, phenolic compounds: gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, apigallocatecin gallate, caffeic acid, rutin hydrate, p-coumeric acid, naringin, resveratrol, kaempferol, and biochanin

Therapeutic actions

Antioxidant, Immune-modulating, immune-stimulating, metal ion chelating, anti-dementia, anti-inflammatory

Medicinal Properties

  • Laccase can oxidize, polymerize and detoxify urushiol (the irritating chemical in poison ivy). Oxidized urushiol is nontoxic, and so laccase can reduce the effect of poison ivy dermatitis.
  • Hydroxy radical is the most reactive oxygen species in attacking biological molecules and can be reduced by regulating gene expression. Laccase can reduce OH radicals.5
  • Hot water extract of .125-2mg/mL had 41.91% to 93.45% free radical scavenging activity, showing high value as an antioxidant.(19)
  • Hot water extract also had 96.85% chelating activity at concentrations of 2mg/mL (19)
  • The phenolic compounds in the fruiting body demonstrated strong, dose dependent anti-acetylcholinesterase activity. (high amounts of acetylcholinesterase can lead to neurological disorders) hence, the possibility of using extracts of this mushroom for preventative treatment of dementia. (19)
  • I could not find very many studies discussing the medicinal value of this mushroom, so I hope that it is further researched. Though, it is very similar genetically to the other Trametes sp. and so I feel comfortable postulating it has therapeutic immune-stimulating and immune-modulating actions due to the beta-glucans being a key component of the fungal cell wall.


Trametes versicolor (One who is thin, of many colors)

Coriolus versicolor

Turkey tail

Cloud Mushroom

Yun Zhi


Distribution and natural Habitat

  • Found throughout North America, and the entire world
  • The most common polypore found on dead hardwoods found on trees that reproduce by flowers, and have broad leaves. Many are deciduous; oak, maple, cherry, birch.

 Totally True Turkey Tail Test- derived from

1) Is the pore surface a real pore surface? Like, can you see actual pores?

Yes: Continue.
No: See Stereum ostrea and other crust fungi.

2) Squint real hard. Would you say there are about 1-3 pores per millimeter (which would make them fairly easy to see), or about 3-8 pores per millimeter (which would make them very tiny)?

3-8 per mm: Continue.
1-3 per mm: See several other species of Trametes.

3) Is the cap conspicuously fuzzy, velvety, or finely hairy (use a magnifying glass or rub it with your thumb)?

Yes: Continue.
No: See several other species of Trametes.

4) Is the fresh cap whitish to grayish?

Yes: See Trametes hirsuta.
No: Continue.

5) Does the cap lack starkly contrasting color zones (are the zones merely textural, or do they represent subtle shades of the same color)?

Yes: See Trametes pubescens.
No: Continue.

6) Is the fresh mushroom rigid and hard, or thin and flexible?

Rigid and hard: See Trametes ochracea.
Thin and flexible: Totally True Turkey Tail.

Spore Print – White

Active Constituents

  • B- glucans
  • PSK (protein bound polysaccharide)
  • PSP (Polysaccharopeptide)
  • Ergosterol (Provitamin D2)

Therapeutic Actions

Styptic, anti-inflammatory, immune-stimulating, immune-modulating, chemo-protective, antibacterial, anti-viral, anti-hypertensive, antigenotoxic, prebiotic, gastrocyte protective


Increases circulation, clears heat and damp, sweet and slightly warming

Medicinal Properties

  • PSP alters the composition of the gut microbial activity. The presence of PSP increased levels of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus sp. in the gut while reducing E. coli, Staphylococcus and Clostridium.7
  • PSK, “Krestin” a protein bound polysaccharide, anti-cancer drug sold in Asia, works as a chemo protective defense to healthy cells, while sensitizing cancer cells. (made them abnormally sensitive to the chemo)14,16
  • People treated with this showed less recurrence in gastric cancer
  • Inhibiting cancer cell growth in combination with enhancing the host’s natural immune response; more killer cells and less cancer.16
  • Significant improvement in breast and cervical cancer survival rates.14
  • Anti microbial activity against E-coli, Listeria, and Candida
  • Use to normalize immune function in patients with chronic rheumatoid arthritis
  • Suppressed blood sugar and increased bone density in diabetic rats.15
  • Ethanolic extracts reduces the growth of hormone responsive prostate cancer cell growth.
  • PSP, polysaccharopeptide, is water soluble polysaccharide, anti-viral agent, shown to inhibit HIV replication, also antitumor properties, immune-modulating response by inhibiting proliferation of leukemia cells, but not affecting growth of leukocytes.
  • Cleared 88% of oral HPV in combination with Ganoderma lucidum.10
  • PSP also have superoxide dismutase, anti-oxidizing actions against free radicals.2
  •  Oxidative damage is a key factor in aging and age related disease DNA can be damaged by oxidative and non oxidative processes. T. versicolor, T.   hirsuta, and T. gibbosa were all shown to be genoprotective when tested on human peripheral white blood cells. T. versicolor had the strongest benefit in maintaining DNA integrity.
  • The polysaccharides instigate both the innate and acquired immunity. Stimulating the macrophages and also the cells that are there to recognize the foreign antigen.
  • When mixed with Astragalus it enhances neutrophil function and speeds recovery in rabbits suffering from burns.13

 Trametes betulina (Lenzites betulina)

“Birch Maze-gill Polypore”


An oxymoron of a mushroom – a gilled polypore

Distribution and natural habitat

Found on deadwood of hardwoods, annual, alone or overlapping on logs – Summer and Fall

Cap (pileus)

Irregular bracket or kidney shaped, concentric zones of texture, zones of white, grey, brown


Pore/gill Surface

Whitish, up to 1cm or more deep, interconnected. KOH negative

Spore Print


Active known Constituents

Benzoquinone compounds: Betulinans A and B (20), p-terphenyl compounds, steroids; ergosterol peroxide and 9(11)-dehydro-ergosterol, L-glutamate, ergosta-7,22-dien-3B-ol, geranicardic acic, sigmasterol, D-allitol

Therapeutic Actions

Antioxidant, anti-atherosclerotic, cytotoxic, antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic

Medicinal Properties

  • Fruiting body methanol extract inhibit lipid peroxidation through free radical scavenging activity20,23
  • In-vitro anticancer activity against human breast cancer cells, Hela cells21
  • Antimicrobial against S. aureus and B. subtilis21
  • Antiviral against H5N1 and H3N222
  • Crude exopolysacchardies have a hypoglycemic effect – helping to lower blood sugar.26
  • Water extract has mild anti-tumor activity against Sarcoma 180


In China, this mushroom was traditionally used to treat haunch, femora pain, acropathy, applexy and cold.

 Stereum ostrea (Hard/Stiff, Oyster)

“False Turkey Tail”


Although not part of the Trametes genus or even the polyporaceae family, this mushroom that is often called false turkey tail, should not be overlooked. This too has great medicinal value and further research should be done.

Another point of interest regarding this mushroom is that one of my favorite and often neglected medicinal fungi, Tramella mesenterica, is parasitic on Stereum. Most of the time it is only parasitic on the mycelium, but in some cases, Tremella can be found growing right on the fruiting body.

Distribution and natural habitat

Deadwood of hardwoods, growing densely, but not fusing together as Trametes sp. often do. Found in all seasons throughout the year.

Cap (pileus)

Often fan shaped, or irregularly kidney shaped. Hairy at first, getting smoother with maturity. Concentric zones of red, orange, yellow and brown. Sometimes taken over by greenish shades with age due to algae.

Interesting about this algae: This algae has a commensal relationship with Stereum. The algae do not get nutrients from the fungus, but uses it to gain a better position in the environment for photosynthesis.

Pore Surface

Smooth, no pores, whitish to reddish brown.

Spore Print


Active known Constituents

Stereumone (a sesquiterpene), three aromatic compounds, methyl 2,4-dihydroxy-6-methylbenzoate.

Therapeutic Actions

Antifungal, Antimicrobial

Medicinal Properties6

  • Water and ethanol extract were effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, water extract having a stronger effect.
  • When compared with antibiotics Streptomyocin and tetracycline, Stereum extracts showed more inhibition of E.coli and P. aeruginosa.


Interesting Ethnomycology Tidbits

Of the mushrooms used by the maya, the polypore mushrooms, including Ganoderma and Trametes were mentioned for treating diverse conditions, from stomach aches to mouth sores, and insanity.(17)

In Western and Central Nepal, Trametes versicolor, Ganoderma lucidum and Coriolus hirsutus were found used for ignition of cigarettes in Lumle area. These species are also used to lock the crevices of the wooden pot (Thekaa). They are cut into small pieces, inserted into crevices and left for one whole night in water. Mushrooms after soaking in water completely, blocked the crevices. (18)


I hope that this post is helpful in elucidating that there is a lot of further research that needs to be done on these beloved polypores. Maybe next time you come across one of these thin, woody fruiting bodies that is not a true Turkey Tail, you will realize it’s medicinal value and decoct them with your other medicinal mushrooms in a tea or broth. 

Now that you can ID these mushrooms and you are aware of their medicine, how will you include them in your life?

Things you can do:

Make a Northwest Trametes spp. dual extract

Easy Folk Recipe:

  • Cover bottom of sauce pot with mushrooms
  • Add 4 Cups of water, and boil until water has reduced by half
  • If you have a high speed blender, now would be a good time to put mushrooms and water into the blender to increase surface area for maximal extraction. You can also chop up the mushrooms before doing this entire process, and will be easiest to cut with scissors.
  • pour into jar, and add 95% alcohol so that the jar contains 2/3 mushroom and water extract and 1/3 ethanol.
  • Shake well and let sit for 3 weeks. Shake whenever you remember to!
  • Press extract out and take as you feel needed.

Some folks like to do an alcohol extraction before the water extraction. I have found that heating the mushroom in the water prior to alcohol extraction has superior results.

Make a Trametes Syrup

A recipe:

  • 1 Large handful of various Trametes spp. in a pot.
  • Cover with 4 C water and decoct until the water is reduced to 2C
  • Simmer with Astragalus for extra immunomodulation action!
  • Mix in 2 C of Raw honey and you have a Trametes syrup. This delicious syrup can be used to sweeten tea, put on pancakes, and just take throughout the year to keep you healthy and strong!

When you find these in the forest and want something to chew on, first make sure the mushroom is not rotten, then stick it in your mouth and chew on it like gum.

Important: Most polypore mushrooms can dry fine on their own. Trametes need to be placed in the dehydrator if you plan on drying them for later use. If you let them air dry you will find that they will eventually turn to dust. (They will be consumed by little mushroom mite type creatures)

Work Cited

  1. R., Shenbhagaraman, Premalatha M.k., Jenefar S., Jagadish L.k., Saravanamurali K., Kaveri K., Karthik S.n., and Kaviyarasan V. “Immunopotentiating Properties of Extracellular Polysaccharide from Trametes Hirsuta Strain VKESR.” Carbohydrate Polymers106 (2014): 299-304. Web.
  2. Knežević, Aleksandar, Lada Živković, Mirjana Stajić, Jelena Vukojević, Ivan Milovanović, and Biljana Spremo-Potparević. “Antigenotoxic Effect Of Trametesspp. Extracts against DNA Damage on Human Peripheral White Blood Cells.” The Scientific World Journal2015 (2015): 1-10. Web.
  3. Mellapa, G., Roshan, A. Nithi, C. et al. “Phytochemical analysis and in vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxicity activities of wood rotting fungi, Trametes ochracea” Pharmacognosy Journal 7(2) (2015): 136-146. Web.
  4. Shamtsyan, M., Antontceva E., Panchecnko A. et al. “Hyperlipidemic and Hypocholesterolic Action os Submerge Cultured Mushrooms” Journal of Hygienic Engineering and Design. Web.
  5. Si, J, Cui, B K “Study of the physiological characteristics of the medicinal mushroom Trametes pubescens (higher Basidiomycetes) during the laccase-producing process.” Int J Med Mushrooms 15 (2) 2013.199-210 Web.
  6. Imtiaj, Ahmed, Jayasinghe, Chandana, Lee, Geon Woo, Lee, Tae Soo “Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Stereum ostrea, an Inedible Wild Mushroom” Mycobiology 35(4) 2007: 210-214
  7. 7.Yu ZT, Liu B, Mukherjee P, Newburg DS “Trametes versicolor extract modifies human      fecal microbiota composition in vitroPlant Foods Hum Nutr – June 1, 2013; 68 (2); 107-12
  8. ui K.P., Sit W.H., and Wan J.M.: Induction of S phase cell arrest and caspase activation by polysaccharide peptide isolated from Coriolus versicolor enhanced the cell cycle dependent activity and apoptotic cell death of doxorubicin and etoposide, but not cytarabine in HL-60 cells. Oncol Rep 2005; 14: pp. 145-155
  9. Wan J.M., Sit W.H., and Louie J.C.: Polysaccharopeptide enhances the anticancer activity of doxorubicin and etoposide on human breast cancer cells ZR-75-30. Int J Oncol 2008; 32: pp. 689-699
  10. Donatini, Bruno “Control of Oral Human Papillomavirus (HPV) by Medicinal Mushrooms, Trametes versicolor and Ganoderma lucidum: A Preliminary Clinical Trial” international Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms. 16 (5) 2014: 497-498
  11. Patel, S. Goyal, A. “Recent developments in mushrooms as anti-cancer therapeutics: a review” 3 Biotech. 2012 March; 2(1): 1-15
  12. Stamets, Paul, and C. Dusty Wu Yao. Mycomedicinals: An Informational Booklet on Medicinal Mushrooms. Olympia, WA: MycoMedia, 2002. p. 42-44 Print.
  13. Rogers, Robert Dale. The Fungal Pharmacy: The Complete Guide to Medicinal Mushrooms and Lichens of North America. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic, 2011. Print.
  14. Standish, Leanna J., Wenner, Cynthia A., Sweet, Erin S., Bridge, Carly, Nelson, Ana, Martzen, Mark, Novack, Jeffrey, Torkelson, Carolyn. “Trametes versicolor mushroom immune therapy in breast cancer” Journal of the society for integrative oncology. 6(3) 2008: 122-128
  15. Chen, C.,Kang, L, Lo Ho. Et al. “polysaccharides of Trametes versicolor improve bone properties in Diabetic Rats” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 63 (42) 2015: 9232-9238
  16. Guggenheim, Alena G, Wright, Kirsten M, Zwickey, Heather L. “Immune Modulation from Five Major Mushrooms: Application to Integrative Oncology” Integrative Medicine. 
  17. Shepard, G., Arora, D., Lampman, A. ” The grace of the flood: Classification and use of wild mushrooms among the highland maya of chiapas” Economic Botany. 62 (3) 2008: 437-470.
  18. Adhikari, M., Devkota, S., Tiwari, R. “Ethnomycological Knowledge on Uses of Wild Mushrooms in Western and Central Nepal” Our Nature. 3 2006: 13-19
  19. Im, Kyung, Trung Nguyen, Jaehyuk Choi, and Tae Lee. “In Vitro Antioxidant, Anti-Diabetes, Anti-Dementia, and Inflammation Inhibitory Effect of Trametes Pubescens Fruiting Body Extracts.” Molecules 21.5 (2016): 639. Web.
  20. Lee IK, Yun BS, Cho SM, et al. Betulinans A and B, two benzoquinone compounds from Lenzites betulina. J Nat Prod. 1996;59(11):1090-1092. doi:10.1021/np960253z.
  21. Liu K, Wang J, Zhao L, Wang Q. Anticancer and Antimicrobial Activities and Chemical Composition of the Birch Mazegill Mushroom Lenzites betulina ( Higher Basidiomycetes ). 2014;16(4):327-337. doi:10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.v16.i4.30.
  22. Teplyakova T V., Psurtseva N V., Kosogova TA, Mazurkova NA, Khanin VA, Vlasenko VA. Antiviral Activity of Polyporoid Mushrooms (Higher Basidiomycetes) from Altai Mountains (Russia). Int J Med Mushrooms. 2012;14(1):37-45. doi:10.1615/IntJMedMushr.v14.i1.40.
  23. Oyetayo VO, Nieto-Camacho A, Rodriguez BE, Jimenez M. Assessment of Anti-inflammatory, Lipid Peroxidation and Acute Toxicity of Extracts Obtained From Wild Higher Basidiomycetes Mushrooms Collected From Akure (Southwest Nigeria). Int J Med Mushrooms. 2012;14(6):575-580. doi:10.1615/IntJMedMushr.v14.i6.50.
  24. Ren G, Liu XY, Zhu HK, Yang SZ, Fu CX. Evaluation of cytotoxic activities of some medicinal polypore fungi from China. Fitoterapia. 2006;77(5):408-410. doi:10.1016/j.fitote.2006.05.004.
  25. Ríos JL. Effects of triterpenes on the immune system. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;128(1):1-14. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2009.12.045.
  26. Jaroszuk-s AJJ, Osin M. Extracellular polysaccharides from Ascomycota and Basidiomycota : production conditions , biochemical characteristics , and biological properties. 2015:1823-1844. doi:10.1007/s11274-015-1937-8.



Cryptoporus volvatus

(With secret pores, Contains a volva)

Pouch fungus, Cryptic globe fungus, veiled polypore


Between the pore surface and the outer tissue, spores fall into a cavity where they are trapped. With no exposure to the outside world, the spore dispersal is quite different than usual among the polypores. Since the wind cannot take the spores away into the wilds of the forest, it has some beetle allies that help it to spread the ‘seed’ along. When the spores are released, a small space appears in the outer tissue as well as a resinous odor that attracts hungry wood-boring beetles, who are then warmly welcomed inside the mushroom. They go in to this new home made of food and they consume the mushroom’s tubes and so the spores as well. The beetles then carry these spores away with them and bore into a new tree whilst inoculating it with the C. volvatus spores.


Deadwood of conifers, found growing in small groups, but dispersed. Favors trees that have recently fallen, been burned…generally in a state of decay. Said to be found summer and fall, though it is common year round in the Pacific West.

Active Known Constituents

  • B-Glucans,
  • Triterpenes
  • sesquiterpenes
  • Volatile oils
  • Amino acids
  • Cryptoporic acids

Spore Print- Pinkish

Therapeutic Actions

Anti-tumor, Anti-allergy, Anti-viral, Anti-inflammatory, Immunomodulatory

Medicinal Use

  • Documented in the Materia Medica of Yunnan, the fruiting body has been used for asthma and bronchitis dating back to the 15th century AD
  • When given at dose of 5mg/ml, the H1N1 virus was blocked by the aqueous extract. Compared to the control group, there was only 20% virus entry into cells.
  • The aqueous extract also exhibits antiviral activity against Influenza A virus in vitro and in vivo.
  • It has been shown to inhibit both early and late stages in virus replication1
  • Studies have showed strong antioxidant, free radical scavenging activity2
  • Cytotoxic activity was observed against human cervix epithelia carcinoma cell lines (Hela) and human hepatoma cell lines. 3
  • Some traditional uses of this mushroom include use in tracheitis, asthma, hemorrhoids, anti-decrepitude, toothache, and anti-inflammatory 3
  • The polysaccharides in the H20 extract from the fruiting body significantly alleviated symptoms of allergic rhinitis and asthma. 4
  • For soar throat, place five to eight pieces, that have been previously simmered in water, in the mouth without chewing.
  • Cryptoporus polysaccharide treatment down regulates LPS-mediated inflammation in lung epithelial cells. This can be a helpful anti-inflammatory for the treatment of airway inflammatory diseases. 6


Transforms phlegm and stops coughing

  • used in TCM to stop bleeding in the intestines, to treat hemorrhoids, carbuncles, furuncles, and toothache. Traditionally decocted as an anti-inflammatory for asthma and bronchial conditions.

Preparation of Dual Extract

See Fomitopsis pinicola preparation

Works Cited

  1.  Gao L, Sun Y, Si J, Liu J, Sun G, et al. (2014) Cryptoporus volvatusExtract Inhibits Influenza Virus Replication In Vitroand In Vivo. PLoS ONE 9(12)
  2. Lee, Jaejung, Joo-Hyun Hong, Jeong-Do Kim, Byoung Jun Ahn, Beom Seok Kim, Gyu-Hyeok Kim, and Jae-Jin Kim. “The Antioxidant Properties of Solid-culture Extracts of Basidiomycetous Fungi.” J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol. The Journal of General and Applied Microbiology59.4 (2013): 279-85. Web.
  3. G. Ren, X.Y. Liu, H.K. Zhu, S.Z. Yang, C.X. Fu, Evaluation of cytotoxic activities of some medicinal polypore fungi from China, Fitoterapia, Volume 77, Issue 5, July 2006, Pages 408-410, ISSN 0367-326X
  4. Qiang-Min Xie, Jun-Fang Deng, Yang-Mei Deng, Chuan-Sen Shao, Hui Zhang, Chuan-Kui Ke, Effects of cryptoporus polysaccharide on rat allergic rhinitis associated with inhibiting eotaxin mRNA expression, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 107, Issue 3, 11 October 2006, Pages 424-430
  5.  Rogers, Robert Dale. The Fungal Pharmacy: The Complete Guide to Medicinal Mushrooms and   Lichens of North America. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic, 2011. Print.Fungal Pharm.
  6. Zhu, Jian-Ping, Kai Wu, Jin-You Li, Yan Guan, Yan-Hong Sun, Wen-Jiang Ma, and Qiang-Min Xie. “Cryptoporus Volvatus Polysaccharides Attenuate LPS-induced Expression of Pro-inflammatory Factors via the TLR2 Signaling Pathway in Human Alveolar Epithelial Cells.” Pharmaceutical Biology(2015): 1-7. Web.




Phellinus igniarius

(Made of cork, relating to fire)

Willow Bracket, Fire Sponge


Igniarius was the name given to this cracked and charred looking perennial conk. It is a fitting name. This mushroom looks as though it can withstand the harshest of elements – flames, lightning, rain and even drought. A tough looking mushroom, but a loving one just the same. A spore travels through the air and lands on a tree. A hardwood tree, like a willow or a Birch, whose wood is the most perfect place for mycelium to spread its network and feast. It lands on the trees that have stood for as long as they were meant to stand, for once inhabited by this new mycelium, their fate is sealed and they will not stand much longer. Although the tree’s life is to come to an end, the mycelium fruits, and in this mushroom a new miniature ecosystem emerges. A microscopic city forms in the pores on the underside and the cracked crust is the home of small centipedes, beetles and spiders. Even in this rough, weathered looking fruiting body, there is an abundance of life. The tree will die, but the life inside of the mushroom will continue and eventually the tree will break down and return to the soil. The strength that this mushroom emanates is a suggestion of resilience to the elements, and so by taking this mushroom as medicine, the person may become more resilient too.


Perennial, releases spores throughout summer and fall. Found on hardwoods. Often found on Willow, Salix sp., but also found on Birch, Betula sp. and Alder, Alnus sp.

Active Known Constituents5,9

Three sesquiterpenes: 3S,9R,10S-3-hydroxy-11, 12-O-isopropyldrimene(1), 3S, 9R, 10S-3, 11, 12-trihydroxydrimene and 3S, 4S, 9R, 10S-11, 12, 14-trihydroxydrimene

Three steroids: 24R-ergosta-4, 6, 8, 22-tetraen-3-one, stigmasta-7, 22-diene-3b, 5a, 6a-triol, and 5a, 8a-epi dioxyergosta-6, 22-diene-3b-ol

Fourteen cyclo-dipeptide: cyclo (L-Pro-L-Val) cycle (L-Leu-D-Pro) cyclo (L-Leu-L-Pro), cyclo (ILe-Pro), cyclo (Gly-Leu), cyclo (Phe-Ser), cyclo (Ala-Pro), cyclo (Ala-Phe), cyclo (4-HyP-Phe), cyclo (L-Phe-D-Pro), cyclo (D-Phe-D-Pro), cyclo (6-HyP-Phe), cycle (Gln-Pro), and cycle (Asn-Leu);

Nine other compounds: N-acetyl-phenylalanine, adenosine, phenyldiethanol, o-hydroxy-phenylethanol, benzoic acid, p-methoxybenzoic acid, m-methoxybenzoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, and 3-pyridinecarboxylic acid.

-Naringenin, cyclophellitol, sakuranetin, aromadendrin, folerogrenin, eriodictyol, coumarin, scopoletin, phelligridins, phelligridimers, inniaris A-D, hispolon, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, protocatechualdehyde, syringic acid, protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, isoerosterone, octadecyl ferulate.

Spore Print – White

Therapeutic Actions

Antioxidant, anti-tumor, anti-viral, hepato-protective, immune-stimulating, immune-modulating

Medicinal Uses

  • Prevented stroke in mice1
  • Hispolon is an active phenolic compound found in Ignarius and when isolated, had significant anti-tumor activity. A study2 was done to look at its effect on lung cancer. Hispolon was found to induce cell apoptosis and GO/G1 cell cycle arrest.
  • Hispolon has also been found to exert anticancer effects on Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML).4
  • The water extract is effective against influenza virus A and B, including H1N1, H2N3, and the Avian flu. The extract interferes with events in the virus replication cycle including viral attachment to the target cell.3
  • Ethanol extracts inhibited the proliferation of human hepatocarcinoma cell lines as well as rat heart vascular endothelial cells. When the extract was given in combination with Chemotherapy there was a synergistic effect in the inhibition of the proliferation of hepatocarcinoma.6 This study as well as others 5 suggest hepatoprotective qualities in the ethanol extract.
  • The biologically active compounds that modulate the immune system have been found to have therapeutic value for slowing multiple sclerosis progression in mice.7 After three weeks of being injected with the extract every other day, demyelination and immune cell infiltrations in the spinal cord were examined and there was a significant decrease in the daily incidence rate and clinical score of autoimmune encephalomyelitis.
  • Used as an emmenagogue, invigorates blood circulation9
  • Fruiting body inhibits neuraminidase from H3N2, H1N1, and H5N1 influenza viruses¹¹ (neuraminidase in an important glycoprotein in influenza viruses that cleaves sialic acid from the infected cell surface and releases virus progeny allowing it to then infect other cells – and so neuraminidase inhibitors are well sought after in medicine)

Ethnobotanical Use:

Native Americans made elaborate boxes to hold the ashes of the fungus. These boxes have been collected from many sites along the Alaskan coast. The boxes were made from exceptional materials of bone, ivory and wood. The fungus was burnt to an ash, which was mixed with tobacco and chewed. It was reported that this gave it a powerful kick. It is known now that the alkaline quality of the ash quickened the effects of the nicotine entering the bloodstream. This species is used rather than other polypores because the Native Americans recognized this as having unique properties and gave a kick that other species did not.8 The Yup’ik of Western Alaska called the fungus arak, and the mixture of tobacco and the ash iqmik – “thing to put in the mouth” It has been reported that 52% of first nations people used this fungus.

Arctic tribes boiled the fruiting body and drank the decoction to soothe the stomach.9


One Study10 looked at the best way to extract polysaccharides from the mycelium, and found the optimal conditions for the highest polysaccharide yield were from an aqueous solution of 70 degrees Celsius, for 1.5 hours and the ratio of mycelia to water being 1:6.2.

When I have made extracts with this mushroom I have found it is easiest to use the fresh mushroom, it becomes very woody and hard to process when it is in it’s whole dry form. Look at extraction process for F. pinicola for instructions.

Work Cited

  1. Suabjakyong, Papawee, Ryotaro Saiki, Leo J. L. D. Van Griensven, Kyohei Higashi, Kazuhiro Nishimura, Kazuei Igarashi, and Toshihiko Toida. “Polyphenol Extract from Phellinus Igniarius Protects against Acrolein Toxicity In Vitro and Provides
  1. Qiuge Wu, Yan Kang, Hui Zhang, Hongmin Wang, Yuanhua Liu, Jing Wang, The anticancer effects of hispolon on lung cancer cells, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Volume 453, Issue 3, 24 October 2014, Pages 385-391,
  1. Lee, Sangmoo, et al. “The Anti-Influenza Virus Effect Of Phellinus Igniarius Extract.” Journal Of Microbiology (Seoul, Korea)51.5 (2013): 676-681. MEDLINE Complete. Web. 13 May 2015.
  1. Pei-Ching Hsiao, Yi-Hsien Hsieh, Jyh-Ming Chow, Shun-Fa Yang, Michael Hsiao, Kuo-Tai Hua, Chien-Huang Lin, Hui-Yu Chen, and Ming-Hsien Chien “Hispolon Induces Apoptosis through JNK1/2-Mediated Activation of a Caspase-8, -9, and -3-Dependent Pathway in Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) Cells and Inhibits AML Xenograft Tumor Growth in Vivo” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2013 61 (42), 10063-10073
  1. Wu, Xiuli, et al. “[Studies On Constituents Of Cultures Of Fungus Phellinus Igniarius].” Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi = Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi = China Journal Of Chinese Materia Medica36.7 (2011): 874-880. MEDLINE Complete. Web. 13 May 2015.
  1. Tuzz-Ying Song, Hung-Chi Lin, Nae-Cherng Yang, Miao-Lin Hu, Antiproliferative and antimetastatic effects of the ethanolic extract of Phellinus igniarius (Linnearus: Fries) Quelet, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 115, Issue 1, 4 January 2008, Pages 50-56
  1. Li, Lan, Guang Wu, Bo Young Choi, Bong Geom Jang, Jin Hee Kim, Gi Ho Sung, Jae Youl Cho, Sang Won Suh, and Hyoung Jin Park. “A Mushroom Extract Piwep from Phellinus Igniarius Ameliorates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by Inhibiting Immune Cell Infiltration in the Spinal Cord.” BioMed Research International2014 (2014): 1-11. Web.
  1. Blanchette, Robert A. “Fungus ashes and tobacco: the use of Phellinus ignarius by the indigenous people of North America” Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota, St. Paul. Feb 2001: 15 (1)
  1. Rogers, Robert Dale. The Fungal Pharmacy: The Complete Guide to Medicinal Mushrooms and Lichens of North America. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic, 2011. Print.
  1. Xia Guo, Xiang Zou, Min Sun, Optimization of extraction process by response surface methodology and preliminary characterization of polysaccharides from Phellinus igniarius, Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 80, Issue 2, 12 April 2010, Pages 344-349
  2. Kim J, Kim D, Hwang BS, et al. Mycobiology Neuraminidase Inhibitors from the Fruiting Body of Phellinus igniarius. 2016:117-120.

Hericium sp.

Hericium abietis, Hericium americanum, Hericium erinaceus

(Like a Hedgehog)

Bear’s Head Mushroom, Lion’s Mane, Western Coral Hedgehog


Walking through the dank darkness of the Northwest forest, and a snowball like specimen comes into view. A strange time of year to find a snowball in the forest, you walk closer and see this pearly white beauty of a toothed mushroom. It smells sweet and bitter and you can’t help but drool. The mushroom feels hearty and meaty and calls to you, there is no doubt it will be delicious. The teeth hang down like icicles and let off the spores from the tips.


Found throughout North America. The fruiting bodies are usually found as individuals on fallen conifer logs, often Douglas Fir, Pseudotsuga menzeseii, in the Pacific Northwest.

This is a parasitic mushroom, slowly killing it’s host.

Hericium abietis is usually found in California, but does come up to the Pacific Northwest. Hericium americanum is also found here, and I have come across H. erinaceus once or twice.

Known active Constituents (Based on Hericium erinaceus research)

  • Cyathane derivatives
  • Erinacines, Hericenones
  • Beta-glucans
  • Galactoxyloglucan
  • Glucoxylan
  • Mannoglucoxylan
  • Xylan
  • Ergosterol-provitamin D2

Spore Print –White

Therapeutic actions

Styptic, immune stimulating, immune modulating, nerve tonic, neuro-regenerative, anti-microbial, Nootropic

Medicinal Uses

  • H. erinaceus has significant anti fatigue activity; increases tissue glycogen content and antioxidant enzyme activity. Decreases blood lactic acid, serum urea nitrogen1
  • Aqueous extract contains neuroactive compounds that induce nerve growth factor synthesis. neurotrophic factors. Important in promoting the growth and differentiation of neurons. 2
  • Daily oral administration of aqueous H. erinaceus could promote the regeneration of injured peroneal nerve in early stage recovery3
  • There is evidence of Nerve cells stimulation and enhancement of cognitive abilities.
  • Lull GI inflammation and cool down ulcers
  • Treats pancreatitis, caused by digestive enzymes performing their duty in the wrong location – pancreas instead of small intestine.
  • Has shown to be an effective therapy for intestinal, stomach and pancreatic cancers, it is chemo-protective.5
  • Lowers blood sugar, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels
  • Stimulates nerve growth factor
  • Neutrophic factors are essential to maintain and organize neurons functionality; hence neutrophic factor like substances or their inducers may be applied to the treatments of neurodegenerative diseases.
  • NGF levels are decreased in the basal forebrains of alzheimer’s patients.
  • Hericium sp. Aqueous extract has also shown to discourage the development of plaque in the brain – another reason why it could be a helpful therapy for alzheimer’s disease
  • Showed to help diabetic neuropathy
  • Intake has the possibility to reduce depression and anxiety through the NGF enhancing action.4 specifically for menopausal females.


  • Used for stomach ailments
  • Used for treatment of GI cancer and gastric ulcers


Cool, tonic


Dual Extract – See F. pinicola

This one you can eat! Here is an easy recipe:


Hericium sp.

1 yellow onion, sliced

2 cloves garlic, chopped

2 Tbs Ghee, coconut oil, or butter

Salt or tamari to taste


Chop up the mushroom

Warm up coconut oil, ghee, or butter on a skillet over medium-high heat

Add the mushroom

When it looks like the mushroom has given off most of its moisture, add sliced onion and chopped garlic until the mushrooms are brown and the onion is soft

Sprinkle with some sea salt, tamari, or truffle salt.


Work Cited

  1. Liu, J., C. DU, Y. Wang, and Z. Yu. “Anti-fatigue Activities of Polysaccharides Extracted from Hericium Erinaceus.” Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine9.2 (2015): 483-87. Web.
  1. Lai, Puei-Lene, Murali Naidu, Vikineswary Sabaratnam, Kah-Hui Wong, Rosie Pamela David, Umah Rani Kuppusamy, Noorlidah Abdullah, and Sri Nurestri A. Malek. “Neurotrophic Properties of the Lion’s Mane Medicinal Mushroom, Hericium Erinaceus (Higher Basidiomycetes) from Malaysia.” International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms15.6 (2013): 539-54. Web.
  1. Wong, Kah-Hui, Murali Naidu, Rosie Pamela David, Robiah Bakar, and Vikineswary Sabaratnam. “Neuroregenerative Potential of Lion’s Mane Mushroom, Hericium Erinaceus (Bull.: Fr.) Pers. (Higher Basidiomycetes), in the Treatment of Peripheral Nerve Injury (Review).” International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms14.5 (2012): 427-46. Web
  1. Nagano, Mayumi, Kuniyoshi Shimizu, Ryuichiro Kondo, Chickako Hayashi, Daigo Sato, Katsuyuki Kitagawa, and Koichiro Ohnuki. “Reduction of Depression and Anxiety by 4 Weeks Hericium Erinaceus Intake.” Biomedical Research31.4 (2010): 231-37. Web.
  1. Li, G., K. Yu, and F. Li. “Anticancer Potential of Hericium Erinaceus Extracts against Human Gastrointestinal Cancers.” Anticancer Potential of Hericium Erinaceus Extracts against Human Gastrointestinal Cancers. N.p., 12 Mar. 2014. Web. 27 Mar. 2015.
  2. Rogers, Robert Dale. The Fungal Pharmacy: The Complete Guide to Medicinal Mushrooms and Lichens of North America. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic, 2011. Print.
  1. Stamets, Paul, and C. Dusty Wu Yao. Mycomedicinals: An Informational Booklet on Medicinal Mushrooms. Olympia, WA: MycoMedia, 2002. Print.

Tremella mesenterica

(To tremble, resembling the mesentery)

Witch’s butter, Yellow Brain Fungus


This mushroom dries up with the sun and rehydrates with the rain. Dab it all over your face and feel the cooling, moistening properties. As the rain hydrates the Tremella, our organs, inside and out, are soothed and moistened too. An orange blob of an organism, with petal-like folds, it resembles the mesentery. Mesentery is the tissue embracing the intestines, branching with veins and arteries that supply the intestines with blood. It is not a surprise then that T. mesenterica soothes the gut. This mushroom, similar to other fungi and plants of the dank forests, has an affinity for the lungs, moistening, cooling, and lightly expectorant.


  • Often found on logs, Douglas fir, Pseudotsuga menzeseii and Hemlock, Tsuga heterophylla, in the PNW and temperate and tropical deciduous forests across the world.
  • A parasitic fungus, grows on the mycelium of other fungi mycelium, typically the of the Peniophora genus.
  • After heavy rainfall, Fall through winter

Active Known Constituents

  • -Glucuronoxylomannan 1,3 alpha-glucan
  • – Epitope (Beta-D-glucuronosyl)
  • – 1,3-beta-1,6-beta glucan
  • – Chitin
  • – Tremellastin
  • – xylose
  • -mannonse
  • -glucurmic acid

Spore Print – White or pale yellow

Therapeutic actions

Immune-stimulating, immune-modulating, radiation protection, hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory, hepato-protective, anti-allergenic, demulcent, hypocholesterolemic, anti-diabetic, anti-tussive, anti-asthmatic


Medicinal Uses

  • Pharmacologically active polysaccharides make up the bulk of the fruit body, 60-90%, while with other medicinal mushrooms the polysaccharides make up a much smaller part of the biomass, 10-30%.
  • Polysaccharides significantly inhibit cancer cell DNA synthesis and growth in mice
  • Rich in provitamin D, Vitamin D deficiency is associated with depression and obesity.
  • Polysaccharides are made up of hemicellulose, a soluble fiber, having a hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic effect.
  • The polysaccharides are known for their water holding capacities
  • Good for skin elasticity – brew fruiting bodies as a thick gelatinous tea and apply to the skin with a cotton pad. Rinse out after 30 minutes.
  • Anti-oxidant and immunomodulating, the polysaccharides stimulate macrophage enzyme activity3
  • Could be used to treat stomach ulcers. Soothing to the GI and has also shown to be effective against H. pylori6
  • Increased immune function with type 1 diabetic mice2
  • One study, showed a decrease in blood sugar to normal levels for 24 hours4
  • Ethanol extract caused apoptosis in human lung carcinoma epithelial cells.1


  • Cooling, moistens the lungs
  • Nourishes the lung, stomach and kidney
  • Strengthens bones, helps maintain ideal weight, and provides proper moisture to the skin
  • lung yin deficiency. Mild expectorant


  • It was a question if this was even a mushroom, or a type of plant. Or some extraterrestrial organism plopped on the earth, maybe Alien spit? I could see Alien spit looking like this.
  • If the mushroom was found on your door, it was said that there was a curse put on your household, and the only way to rid of the curse is to stab the mushroom with a knife multiple times…this folklore comes from the West. Whereas the mushroom as been used as medicine in Asia for millennia.



Candied Witch’s Butter 


4 Large pieces of Witch’s Butter

2 C Sugar

2 C Water


Heat water and sugar together until the sugar is dissolved

Add mushroom and simmer on low-medium for about an hour, or until the syrup has thickened to a desired consistency

Store in the refrigerator and eat like gummy bears or dehydrate for a crunchy sweet treat.


– Make a tea, boiling it in water for at least an hour

– Add to soups and stews, doesn’t taste like much, but an easy way to get medicine in!

Work Cited

  1. Chen, Nan-Yin, and Hsi-Huai Lai. “Induction of Apoptosis in Human Lung Carcinoma A549 Epithelial Cells with an Ethanol Extract of Tremella Mesenterica.” National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web. 03 Mar. 2015.
  1. Lo, Hui-Chen, Tai-Hao Hsu, Chien-Hsing Lee, Fang-Yi Lin, and Solomonp Wasser. “The Fruiting Bodies, Submerged Culture Biomass, and Acidic Polysaccharide Glucuronoxylomannan of Yellow Brain Mushroom Tremella Mesenterica Modulate the Immunity of Peripheral Blood Leukocytes and Splenocytes in Rats with Impaired Glucose Tolerance.”Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine0.0 (2014): n. pag. Web.
  1. Jeong, Sang-Chul, Sundar Rao Koyyalamudi, J. Margaret Hughes, Cheang Khoo, Trevor Bailey, Karthik Marripudi, Jong Pil Park, Jin Hee Kim, and Chi-Hyun Song. “Antioxidant and Immunomodulating Activities of Exo-and Endopolysaccharide Fractions from Submerged Mycelia Cultures of Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms.” International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms15.3 (2013): 251-66. Web.
  1. Rahar, Sandeep, Navneet Nagpal, Gaganshah Singh, Gaurav Swami, and Manishaa Nagpal. “Preparation, Characterization, and Biological Properties of β-glucans.” Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research2.2 (2011): 94. Web.
  1. Rogers, Robert Dale. The Fungal Pharmacy: The Complete Guide to Medicinal Mushrooms and Lichens of North America. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic, 2011. Print.
  1. Lachter, Jesse, Yevgeny Yampolsky, Ronit Gafni-Schieber, and Solomon P. Wasser. “Yellow Brain Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Tremella Mesenterica Ritz.:Fr. (Higher Basidiomycetes), Is Subjectively but Not Objectively Effective for Eradication of Helicobacter Pylori: A Prospective Controlled Trial.” International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms 14.1 (2012): 55-63. Web.

Ganoderma oregonense

Oregon Reishi 


Late summer foliage and moss covered trees, follow the lichen and licorice fern trails from the treetops down the trunk and along the fallen logs. In a ravine full of Devil’s club and ground covered in wild ginger, a bright gem appears. The Ganoderma oregonense glows and calls you forward. This mushroom will sometimes share space with G. applanatum and F. pinicola. This annual fruiting body is hard to miss, in its short fruiting season it gets larger than a human head. When its shiny skin is covered in spores it resembles the G. applanatum, it too has a pore surface that bruises. This fruiting body is also often confused with F. pinicola, which does not have a varnished crust and does not bruise on the pore surface.

Ganoderma oregonense Spagyric.

One drop of Ganoderma Spagyric. It sits in the heart radiating outward across the chest, warming the diaphragm and you can’t help but to smile. The feeling of standing in the forest, dense with life, transformation and decay. Everything is OK, a reminder of the cyclical reality of the earth that is often forgotten. There is always change, there is always death. There is always a breakdown, and with that, a build up. Inspires you to show your bold colors as the Ganoderma does; it’s bright red beauty in a dank forest of browns and greens…such confidence, a reminder that it is Ok to stand out and shine.



Annual, Summer-Fall

Found on conifers, often Douglas Fir, Pseudotsuga menzeseii, and Hemlock, Tsuga heterophylla.

*Active Known Constituents

  • Ganoderic acids
  • Various glycans
  • 3-oxo-5a-lanosta-8,24-dien-21-oic acid – 3a-acetoxy-5a-lanosta-8,24-dien-21-oic acid ester b-D-glucoside

Spore Print –Brown

 Therapeutic Actions

Anti-­allergenic, anti-­inflammatory, anti-­oxidant, immune-­modulating, immune­‐ stimulating, anti-­viral,Hepato‐ protective, anti­tumor

*There is a lack of research on the Ganoderma oregonense. DNA sequencing of the more extensively researched, G. Tsugae, showed enough similarities to the G. Oregonense1 that we could postulate the medicinal actions of the latter through the research of the former.

 Medicinal Use

  • Triterpenes found in Ganoderma species suppress growth and invasive behavior of cancer cells, whereas the polysaccharides stimulate the immune system.
  • These polysaccharides have been termed “Ganopolys”. These Beta-glucans have immune-stimulating, immune-modulating, and anti-tumor activity. These activities correlate with higher molecular weight and lower levels of branching, because these molecules are more water soluble.7
  • “Ganopolys” affect the body’s immune system by activating macrophage activity, facilitating T- lymphocytes transferring to cytotoxic t cells, and enhancing the amount of B lymphocytes and natural killer cells.7
  • Triterpenes are bitter components, the bitter flavor conveys a hepatoprotective effect, also stimulates digestive enzyme production by the pancreas, and can help with sugar cravings.
  • Hepatoprotective effects were perhaps related to the ability to increase the activity of free radical scavenging enzymes and to raise the ability of antioxidation. Ganoderic acid, one of the triterpenoids found in G. Lucidum, G. Tsugae, G. applanatum, and G. Oregonense, was proven to be a potent inhibitor of β-glucuronidase activity, an indicator of hepatic damage1,3
  • Triterpenoids have high antioxidant activity, and have a cardioprotective effect in mice3
  • Activity against 3 cancer cell lines; lanostanoid and a sterol caused death by apoptosis and suggested that is was the sterol that possessed the cell cycle inhibition activity.2
  • Aqueous extract showed anti-tumor activity in human breast cancer cells and only showed a cyctotoxic effect on cancer cell lines, no cytotoxic effect found on normal cell lines6
  • Ganoderma compounds inhibit 5-alpha-keto-reducate activity that is responsible for the biosynthesis of dihydrotestosterone, this indicates a possible therapeutic value in prostate cancer.5
  • Chitin membrane used as a wound dressing known as sacchachitin and developed from the residue of the fruiting body.5,8
  • A pulpy white residue was tested as a skin substitute, wound healing was found faster than the commercialized skin substitute made from chitin from crab shell. Sacchachitin also showed to have strong antibacterial and antiviral activity.5
  • Alleviate bronchoalveolar inflammation by decreasing the amount of inflammatory cells and the secretion of inflammatory mediator into the lungs and airways, therapeutic application in allergic asthma.9
  • Increases oxygen absorbing capacity of alveoli in the lungs


Warming, nourishes the heart, disperses stuck energy, tonic, sweet, bitter

Preparation of Dual Extract

See F. pinicola preparation

Work Cited

  1. Hong, SG, and HS Jung. “Phylogenetic Analysis of Ganoderma Based on Nearly Complete Mitochondrial Small-subunit Ribosomal DNA Sequences.”National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web. 03 Mar. 2015.
  1. Kuo, Han-Peng, Shih-Chung Hsu, Chien-Chih Ou, Jhy-Wei Li, Hsiu-Hsueh Tseng, Tzu-Chao Chuang, Jah-Yao Liu, Shih-Jung Chen, Muh-Hwan Su, Yung-Chi Cheng, Wei-Yuan Chou, and Ming-Ching Kao. “Ganoderma Tsugae Extract Inhibits Growth of HER2-Overexpressing Cancer Cells via Modulation of HER2/PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway.” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine2013 (2013): 1-12. Web
  1. KY, Kuok, and Yeh CY. “The Triterpenoids of Ganoderma Tsugae Prevent Stress-induced Myocardial Injury in Mice.” Molecular Nutrition and Food Research57.10 (2013): 1892-896. Web. 25 Mar. 2015.
  1. Huang, Chi-Chang, Wen-Ching Huang, Suh-Ching Yang, Chih-Chi Chan, and Wan-Teng Lin. “Ganoderma Tsugae Hepatoprotection against Exhaustive Exercise-Induced Liver Injury in Rats.” Molecules18.2 (2013): 1741-754. Web.
  1. Chuang, Chao-ming, HE Wang, and CH Chang. “Sacchachitin, a Novel Chitin-polysaccharide Conjugate Macromolecule Present in Ganoderma Lucidum: Purification, Composition, and Properties.” Pharmaceutical Biology52.1 (2013): 84-95. Web. 25 Mar. 2015
  1. Yue, GG, KP Fung, and GM Tse. “Comparative Studies of Various Ganoderma Species and Their Different Parts with Regard to Their Antitumor and Immunomodulating Activities In Vitro.” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine12.8 (2006): 777-89. EBSCO Host. Web. 25 Mar. 2015.
  1. Zhou, Xuanwei, Juan Lin, Yizhou Yin, Jingya Zhao, Xiaofen Sun, and Kexuan Tang. “Ganodermataceae: Natural Products and Their Related Pharmacological Functions.” The American Journal of Chinese Medicine35.04 (2007): 559. Web.
  1. Su, Ching-Hua, Chi-Shu Sun, Sheng-Wei Juan, Hsiu-O Ho, Chung-Hong Hu, and Ming-Thau Sheu. “Development of Fungal Mycelia as Skin Substitutes: Effects on Wound Healing and Fibroblast.” Biomaterials20.1 (1999): 61-68. Web.
  1. Chen, Miaw-Ling, and Bi-Fong Lin. “Effects of Triterpenoid-Rich Extracts of Ganoderma Tsugae on Airway Hyperreactivity and Th2 Responses in Vivo.” International Archives of Allergy and Immunology 143.1 (2007): 21-30. Web.

Ganoderma applanatum

(Shiny skin, Flattened)

Artist’s conk, “Ancient ling zhi”, Flesh Polypore. White Reishi, Tree Tongue


A tree falls in a forest when nobody is around, and it does not matter if it is to make a sound, but what a wonderful opportunity for this G. applanatam to make a home. These fruiting bodies are most often found on trees that are dead or dying. Fallen trees, bridging across a stream are a common host. With the movement of the stream, the breakdown of the tree, an example of how life is always cycling through the forest. G. applanatum plays a major role in the breakdown of a dead tree and so, supplies the earth with nutrients and makes it possible for regrowth to happen on the forest floor. Most often, I find this mushroom by streams, sometimes hiding under fallen logs. Near to the ground, and pore surface underside, it would seem difficult to spread spores. Electrostatic and thermal differentials dust the crust with the spores, allowing grand opportunity for the wind to spread them about the forest, in the trillions.


Perennial, Grows on hardwoods and conifers, loves the old Douglas fir, Pseudotsugae menzeseii.

Active Known Constituents

  • B-Glucans,
  • hetero-B-glucans
  • Ganoderic acids-triterpenes
  • Lanostanic triterpenoids
  • Applanoxidic acids A, B, C, and D
  • Ergosterol
  • Ganoderma aldehyde
  • Meroterpenoids: Applanatumols A and B

Spore Print- Brown

Therapeutic Actions

Styptic, carminative, analgesic, immune-stimulant, anti-tumor, anti-viral, hypoglycemic, hypo-cholesterolemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, anti-bacterial, antioxidant, anti-tumor, anti-fibrotic

Medicinal Use

  • Anti-tumor actions in one study6 showed a 39.7% tumor reduction in tumor formation
  • Can live for 40-50 years, resisting rot for this long proves strong anti-microbial activity.
  • Alcohol extract of the fruiting body showed activity against a wide range of bacteria, E. coli, S. aureus. coli, B. cereus, S. pyogenes
  • Significant anti-oxidant activity
  • Applanatum terpenes showed liver protective activity by decreasing ROS and MDA. These terpenes renewed activities of antioxidant enzymes and suppressed the inflammatory response.9
  • Antiviral actions are effective against Epstein Bar Virus
  • Inhibits the differentiation of preadipocytes into mature adipocytes by reducing triglyceride accumulation.7 Therefore, proving possible effectiveness as an anti-obesity agent.
  • Significant increase in nitric oxide synthase1
  • Nitric oxide is a vasodilator, hence increasing blood flow to the arteries. Taking part in cardiac function, peristalsis and sexual arousal in males and females, applanatum could be classified as an aphrodisiac.
  • Meroterpenoid, applanatumol A and B, are potent extracellular matrix inhibitors in TGF-beta induced rat epithelial cells, and was extremely beneficial in end stage kidney disease/kidney fibrosis.(10)


Removes heat, reduces phlegm

  • “Acrid and balanced. It mainly treats cough and counterflow qi ascent, boosts the lung qi, disinhibits the mouth and nose, fortifies the will to cultivate bravery and undauntedness, and quiets the corporeal soul (Po, held in the lungs, representing our primal urges or animal instinct.) Protracted taking may make the body light, prevent senility, and prolong life so as to make one an immortal.” –The divine farmer’s materia medica p18

Ethnobotanical uses

  • Dian Fossey, on page 314 of “Gorillas In the Mist” states,“Still another special food (for the gorillas) is bracket fungus (Ganoderma applanatum)… The shelflike projection is difficult to break free, so younger animals often have to wrap their arms and legs awkwardly around a trunk and content themselves by only gnawing at the delicacy. Older animals who succeed in breaking the fungus loose have been observed carrying it several hundred feet from its source, all the while guarding it possessively from more dominant individuals attempts to take it away. Both the scarcity of the fungus and the gorillas’ liking of it cause many intragroup squabbles, a number of which are settled by the silverback, who simply takes the item of contention for himself.”
  • Athabaskans of Alaska burn the fungus to provide a mosquito repellent smoke3
  • In Nigeria the mushroom has been used for it’s antioxidant properties and for diabetes5

Preparation of Dual Extract

See Fomitopsis pinicola preparation

Works Cited

  1. Acharya, Krishnendu, Parinita Yonzone, Manjula Rai, and Rupa Acharya. “Antioxidant and Nitric Oxide Synthase Activation Properties of Ganoderma Applanatum.” Indian Journal of Experimental Biology43 (2005): 926-29. Web. 18 Mar. 2015.
  1. Hobbs, Christopher. Medicinal Mushrooms: An Exploration of Tradition, Healing & Culture. Santa Cruz, CA: Botanica, 1995. Print.
  1. Rogers, Robert Dale. The Fungal Pharmacy: The Complete Guide to Medicinal Mushrooms and Lichens of North America. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic, 2011. Print.
  1. Stamets, Paul, and C. Dusty Wu Yao. “Ganoderma Applanatum.” Mycomedicinals: An Informational Booklet on Medicinal Mushrooms. Olympia, WA: MycoMedia, 2002. 22-24. Print.
  1. Oyetayo, Ov. “Medicinal Uses of Mushrooms in Nigeria: Towards Full and Sustainable Exploitation.” African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines8.3 (2011): n. pag. Web.
  1. Jeong, Yong-Tae, Byung-Keun Yang, Sang-Chul Jeong, Sang-Min Kim, and Chi-Hyun Song. “Ganoderma Applanatum: A Promising Mushroom for Antitumor and Immunomodulating Activity.” Phytotherapy Research22.5 (2008): 614-19. Web.
  1. Kim, Ji-Eun, Sung-Jin Park, and Mi-Hee Yu. “Effect of Ganoderma Applanatum Mycelium Extract on the Inhibition of Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.” Journal of Medicinal Food17.10 (2014): 1086-094. Web. 20 Mar. 2015.
  1. Usui, Taichi, and Yoshio Iwasaki. “Antitumor Activity of Water-Solubleβ- D-Glucan Elaborated by Ganoderma Applanatum.” Agricultural and Biological Chemistry(2014): n. pag. Web.
  1. Ma, Jie-Qiong, Chan-Min Liu, Zhi-Hong Qin, Ji-Hong Jiang, and Yun-Zhi Sun. “Ganoderma Applanatum Terpenes Protect Mouse Liver against Benzo(α)pyren-induced Oxidative Stress and Inflammation.”Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology31.3 (2011): 460-68. Web.
  2. Luo, Qi, Lei Di, Xiao-Hua Yang, and Yong-Xian Cheng. “Applanatumols A and B, Meroterpenoids with Unprecedented Skeletons from Ganoderma Applanatum.” RSC Adv. 6.51 (2016): 45963-5967. Web.