Including Mushrooms in your Daily Life: Recipe 1

It is easy enough to read and write about the research that has been done on medicinal mushrooms, but what is one supposed to do with this new found knowledge? What if you don’t have time to make a dual extract, or it feels too hot out to drink a hot mushroom tea. There are many ways to include mushrooms into daily life that do not involve imbibing a tea or taking a tincture. As it is now Fall and the weather will start to get colder, people are more susceptible to viruses. A person who uses mushrooms throughout their days will be more resilient during these cooler and darker months, and really, the whole year. The medicinal polypore mushrooms that I usually write about are deemed ‘inedible’ in most ID books. To an extent, this is true, in that you are not going to fry them up and eat them like a Shitake or Matsutake, but there are definitely ways to consume them, and benefit from their medicinal qualities. This is the first recipe I’ll be posting, but stay tuned for more throughout the next few months.

Immune Boosting Oatmeal


Beta-Glucans Galore!

For 1 large Serving


1/2 C Oatsrei

1 C Water or pre-made *Mushroom decoction

1 Tbs Mushroom powder (Reishi, Chaga, Cordyceps, Turkey Tail, Lion’s Maine) – available at

1/2 tsp Cinnamon

1/2 tsp vanilla extract

1 tsp Turmeric

1 Tbs maple syrup, honey, or mushroom infused honey! (made by chopping up polypore mushroom into the smallest pieces possible, filling up a jar half way, pouring raw honey over the mushrooms, and letting sit for 1 month or more)


  1. Place all ingredients accept sweetener in pot over high heat. When boiling begins, turn down heat to a simmer.
  2. let simmer for a few minutes until oats are fully cooked and then drizzle maple syrup or honey.
  3. Add fruit, seeds, nuts, milk, yogurt, whatever you love!
  4. Enjoy and know you are keeping your immune system strong and healthy.

*Mushroom decoction: 1 Handful chopped mushrooms placed in pot or crockpot. Pour 4 cups of water over mushrooms, and simmer until the brew is decocted by half…this means that there will now be 2 cups left. You can test this by using a chopstick – Mark the chopstick where the water begins, and then dip the chopstick in intermittently to see when the brew hits half – Strain out the mushrooms and either drink the decoction as tea, or place in fridge for use in smoothies, oatmeal, broths, porridge, rice, beans, and stews.

A note on beta-glucans and the Immune System

Fungal Cell Wall Components


“Chitin, Chitinase Responses, and Invasive Fungal Infections : Figure 1.”Chitin, Chitinase Responses, and Invasive Fungal Infections : Figure 1. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 May 2015.

Beta Glucans are polysaccharides (carbohydrates) found in the cell walls of Yeast, Fungi, Algae, Lichens, and some plants, such as Oats and Barley. Together, with Chitin, they make up the fungal cell wall. B-glucans are biological response modifiers. This means that they cause no harm and place no additional stress on the body while helping the body to adapt to certain biological and environmental stressors. They support major systems such as the nervous, hormonal and immune system. You may have heard of adaptogens, this is a very similar definition.

Research shows that Beta-glucans have a hypoglycemic, cholesterol lowering, immune-stimulating and immune-modulating, and anti-tumor effect on animals. 1,2,4

Beta-glucans are made up of hemicellulose, which is a soluble fiber. Soluble fiber is water-soluble and forms a viscous water layer in the gut. This viscous layer in the small intestine decreases absorption of sugars and lipids into the blood stream. (hence, the hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic effect). Beta glucans from fungi reduced overall level of cholesterol and LDL in blood, as well as decreased the level of free fatty acids, while at the same time increasing HDL cholesterol. The sugars also increase the amount of Leptin – a protein like substance produced by fat cells that plays a role in hunger and satiety, which suggests their use as an agent to help with weight loss.

Beta-glucans are resistant to stomach acid and so they move through the GI, into the small intestines pretty much unchanged. The cells in the lining of the small intestine, the enterocytes, facilitate the transportation of the Beta-glucans into the lymph where the macrophages are waiting with open arms (Dectin-1 receptor sites). Like a key, they unlock the macrophages and activate them to travel back to the lymph nodes to induce immune activations. Once activated, it starts to produce bactericidal compounds such as reactive oxygen radical, N-oxide, and lysozyme. These activated cells also produce cytokines, which then activate phagocytes and leukocytes in specific immunity. B-glucans also play a role in promoting the activity of helper lymphocytes known as Th1 and Th2. Th1 controls immunity against intracellular parasites, while Th2 controls immunity against extracellular pathogens. When there is an imbalance in these lymphocytes, an autoimmune response can occur. Beta glucans help keep this balance.

Antitumor action: The antitumor action happens via activation of the immune response, explained earlier. They do not attack cancer cells directly, but produce their antitumor effects by activating different immune responses in the host. They potentiate the response of precursor T cells and macrophages to cytokines produced by lymphocytes after specific recognition of tumor cells. In summary, the tumor cells are attacked by the immune system, which is activated by macrophages bound with Beta glucans.

Work Cited

  1. Rahar, Sandeep, Gaurav Swami, Navneet Nagpal, Manisha A. Nagpal, and Gagan Shah Singh. “Preparation, Characterization, and Biological Properties of β-glucans.” Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research. Medknow Publications Pvt Ltd, n.d. Web. 26 Feb. 2015.
  1. S., Wasser. “Medicinal Mushrooms as a Source of Antitumor and Immunomodulating Polysaccharides.” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 60.3 (2002): 258-74. Web. 26 Feb. 2015.
  1. Ferreira, Isabel C.f.r., Josiana A. Vaz, M. Helena Vasconcelos, and Anabela Martins. “Compounds from Wild Mushrooms with Antitumor Potential.” Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry10.5 (2010): 424-36. Web.
  2. Rop, Otakar, Jiri Mlcek, and Tunde Jurikova. “Beta-glucans in Higher Fungi and Their Health Effects.” Nutrition Reviews67.11 (2009): 624-31. Web.

Distillations on Ganoderma Applanatum

Each process of work I engage in with the fungal kingdom continues to remind me of how similar we humans are to our fungal allies. Thus far, on this blog I have brought up research that I have collected on the various mushrooms, and barely touched on the different levels of medicinal preparations that I have been experimenting with. Most recently, I have been experimenting with polypore distillations.

gano pic

This magnificent mushroom was collected early in the day, chopped, and then vitamixed (high speed blended into tiny fibers). After the body of the mushroom was processed into the smallest pieces possible, it was added to a 2L flask.

Steam distillation begins.

considering the limited information on the volatiles of G. applanatum, I was skeptical if there would be any oil collected at the end of this process. There was one paper I found in the journal of Essential Oil Research that tested for the essential oils of G. applanatum. The paper, “Volatile Metabolites from the Wood Inhabiting Fungi Bjerkandera adusta, Ganoderma applanatum, and stereum hirsutum” by Ziegenbein et al. found 22 volatile compounds that could could be identified, with R-(-)-1-octen-3-ol (Octanol) and phenylacetaldehyde being the major constituents of the oil. Other constituents found in amounts between 5-10% are (E)-2-octenal, (E,E) 2,4-decadienal, 2-nonenal and 5 ethyl cyclopentene-1-carbaldehyde. This is the first time that 5 ethyl-cyclopentene-e-carbaldehyde has been found as  a fungal metabolite.

Octanol, also known as mushroom alcohol, is a chemical that attracts biting insects, like mosquitos. It can also be found in human breath and sweat. Maybe this is why the mosquitos love me so much…you could probably make a trap using the volatiles, put a bowl out with the hydrosol or a little oil and the mosquitos will go to that instead of to you. I would suggest not spraying yourself down with the hydrosol before walking through the woods. Octanol is found in many edible mushrooms and also Lemon Balm, Melissa officinalis. There is also small mention of it’s use in perfumery. In my experience with smelling the volatiles from this mushroom the scent is reminiscent of spicy, yet sweet decaying earth.( A hard to find smell in the world of perfumery) There is also research being done on using octanol to treat involuntary tremor disorders. 

Phenylacetaldehyde is found abundantly in nature, it is a derivative of the amino acid, phenylalanine. This can be found in chocolate, flowers, and certain insect pheromones. It has also been used to flavor cigarettes and added to fragrances to add a grassy-rose like flavor.

(E) 2-octenal is used as a flavoring agent in food industry, said to have a nutty flavor, and is mostly found in fungi and lamb. Also, one of the major constituents in the stink bug stench!

(E,E) 2,4-decadienal is an aromatic substance found in butter and cooked beef. Said to have a deep fat, brothy flavor and smell. When distilling mushrooms, the entire room usually ends up smelling like cooked steak…

2-nonenal is an important aroma component in aged beer, and according to wikipedia the smell that comes along with the aging of humans.

After about an our of distillations, the fumes filled the air of my house, and my eyelids felt like bricks. complete exhaustion came over me and I napped for most of the time the distillate trickled through. This has been the strongest sedating effect I have felt from any substance I have encountered. It felt painful to stay awake. I suppose there is implication for the hydrosol to be used as a strong sedative. Since then, I have sprayed the hydrosol throughout my home before bed, and the sedating effect is still there. Ganoderma species have a history of use as a sedative, so this was no surprise.

After 2 hours there was a build up of fatty emulsion in the condenser and it slowly fell into the oil separator.

gano distill

Hours went by, and the thick white substance continued to build up in the condenser. After turning the water off, the build up in the condenser fell in to the oil separator. The cold water running through the condenser was keeping it in a more solid form, and when the condenser warmed it softened and fell through. I thought it would potentially liquify at room temperature, but it stayed as a substance the consistency of lard. This smelled extremely aromatic; Decaying forest with coinciding notes of sweet and pungent.

I ended up collecting 20 oz of hydrosol and about a teaspoon of the lard-like substance.

I had a taste of the water left over in the boiling flask, strongly infused with the water soluble components of the mushroom, and it seemed to be the antidote to the sedation. It awoke me in a flash. Mushroom medicine is amphoteric medicine. If your immune system is suppressed the mushroom medicine will stimulate it, if it is overstimulated, the mushrooms will suppress it. This is the same with the energizing and sedating qualities of the Ganoderma sp. This experience is suggestive that I have separated these two qualities.

If anyone has any interest in working with this hydrosol in perfumery let me know, I am happy to provide it, as I know it is not easy to find.

The soul/volatile sulfur of G. applanatum is substantial. It is comforting, strong, balancing and grounding. A supportive and tenacious ally.

To read more about mushrooms and alchemy check out this beautiful website:


Cryptoporus volvatus

(With secret pores, Contains a volva)

Pouch fungus, Cryptic globe fungus, veiled polypore


Between the pore surface and the outer tissue, spores fall into a cavity where they are trapped. With no exposure to the outside world, the spore dispersal is quite different than usual among the polypores. Since the wind cannot take the spores away into the wilds of the forest, it has some beetle allies that help it to spread the ‘seed’ along. When the spores are released, a small space appears in the outer tissue as well as a resinous odor that attracts hungry wood-boring beetles, who are then warmly welcomed inside the mushroom. They go in to this new home made of food and they consume the mushroom’s tubes and so the spores as well. The beetles then carry these spores away with them and bore into a new tree whilst inoculating it with the C. volvatus spores.


Deadwood of conifers, found growing in small groups, but dispersed. Favors trees that have recently fallen, been burned…generally in a state of decay. Said to be found summer and fall, though it is common year round in the Pacific West.

Active Known Constituents

  • B-Glucans,
  • Triterpenes
  • sesquiterpenes
  • Volatile oils
  • Amino acids
  • Cryptoporic acids

Spore Print- Pinkish

Therapeutic Actions

Anti-tumor, Anti-allergy, Anti-viral, Anti-inflammatory, Immunomodulatory

Medicinal Use

  • Documented in the Materia Medica of Yunnan, the fruiting body has been used for asthma and bronchitis dating back to the 15th century AD
  • When given at dose of 5mg/ml, the H1N1 virus was blocked by the aqueous extract. Compared to the control group, there was only 20% virus entry into cells.
  • The aqueous extract also exhibits antiviral activity against Influenza A virus in vitro and in vivo.
  • It has been shown to inhibit both early and late stages in virus replication1
  • Studies have showed strong antioxidant, free radical scavenging activity2
  • Cytotoxic activity was observed against human cervix epithelia carcinoma cell lines (Hela) and human hepatoma cell lines. 3
  • Some traditional uses of this mushroom include use in tracheitis, asthma, hemorrhoids, anti-decrepitude, toothache, and anti-inflammatory 3
  • The polysaccharides in the H20 extract from the fruiting body significantly alleviated symptoms of allergic rhinitis and asthma. 4
  • For soar throat, place five to eight pieces, that have been previously simmered in water, in the mouth without chewing.
  • Cryptoporus polysaccharide treatment down regulates LPS-mediated inflammation in lung epithelial cells. This can be a helpful anti-inflammatory for the treatment of airway inflammatory diseases. 6


Transforms phlegm and stops coughing

  • used in TCM to stop bleeding in the intestines, to treat hemorrhoids, carbuncles, furuncles, and toothache. Traditionally decocted as an anti-inflammatory for asthma and bronchial conditions.

Preparation of Dual Extract

See Fomitopsis pinicola preparation

Works Cited

  1.  Gao L, Sun Y, Si J, Liu J, Sun G, et al. (2014) Cryptoporus volvatusExtract Inhibits Influenza Virus Replication In Vitroand In Vivo. PLoS ONE 9(12)
  2. Lee, Jaejung, Joo-Hyun Hong, Jeong-Do Kim, Byoung Jun Ahn, Beom Seok Kim, Gyu-Hyeok Kim, and Jae-Jin Kim. “The Antioxidant Properties of Solid-culture Extracts of Basidiomycetous Fungi.” J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol. The Journal of General and Applied Microbiology59.4 (2013): 279-85. Web.
  3. G. Ren, X.Y. Liu, H.K. Zhu, S.Z. Yang, C.X. Fu, Evaluation of cytotoxic activities of some medicinal polypore fungi from China, Fitoterapia, Volume 77, Issue 5, July 2006, Pages 408-410, ISSN 0367-326X
  4. Qiang-Min Xie, Jun-Fang Deng, Yang-Mei Deng, Chuan-Sen Shao, Hui Zhang, Chuan-Kui Ke, Effects of cryptoporus polysaccharide on rat allergic rhinitis associated with inhibiting eotaxin mRNA expression, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 107, Issue 3, 11 October 2006, Pages 424-430
  5.  Rogers, Robert Dale. The Fungal Pharmacy: The Complete Guide to Medicinal Mushrooms and   Lichens of North America. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic, 2011. Print.Fungal Pharm.
  6. Zhu, Jian-Ping, Kai Wu, Jin-You Li, Yan Guan, Yan-Hong Sun, Wen-Jiang Ma, and Qiang-Min Xie. “Cryptoporus Volvatus Polysaccharides Attenuate LPS-induced Expression of Pro-inflammatory Factors via the TLR2 Signaling Pathway in Human Alveolar Epithelial Cells.” Pharmaceutical Biology(2015): 1-7. Web.




Phellinus igniarius

(Made of cork, relating to fire)

Willow Bracket, Fire Sponge


Igniarius was the name given to this cracked and charred looking perennial conk. It is a fitting name. This mushroom looks as though it can withstand the harshest of elements – flames, lightning, rain and even drought. A tough looking mushroom, but a loving one just the same. A spore travels through the air and lands on a tree. A hardwood tree, like a willow or a Birch, whose wood is the most perfect place for mycelium to spread its network and feast. It lands on the trees that have stood for as long as they were meant to stand, for once inhabited by this new mycelium, their fate is sealed and they will not stand much longer. Although the tree’s life is to come to an end, the mycelium fruits, and in this mushroom a new miniature ecosystem emerges. A microscopic city forms in the pores on the underside and the cracked crust is the home of small centipedes, beetles and spiders. Even in this rough, weathered looking fruiting body, there is an abundance of life. The tree will die, but the life inside of the mushroom will continue and eventually the tree will break down and return to the soil. The strength that this mushroom emanates is a suggestion of resilience to the elements, and so by taking this mushroom as medicine, the person may become more resilient too.


Perennial, releases spores throughout summer and fall. Found on hardwoods. Often found on Willow, Salix sp., but also found on Birch, Betula sp. and Alder, Alnus sp.

Active Known Constituents5,9

Three sesquiterpenes: 3S,9R,10S-3-hydroxy-11, 12-O-isopropyldrimene(1), 3S, 9R, 10S-3, 11, 12-trihydroxydrimene and 3S, 4S, 9R, 10S-11, 12, 14-trihydroxydrimene

Three steroids: 24R-ergosta-4, 6, 8, 22-tetraen-3-one, stigmasta-7, 22-diene-3b, 5a, 6a-triol, and 5a, 8a-epi dioxyergosta-6, 22-diene-3b-ol

Fourteen cyclo-dipeptide: cyclo (L-Pro-L-Val) cycle (L-Leu-D-Pro) cyclo (L-Leu-L-Pro), cyclo (ILe-Pro), cyclo (Gly-Leu), cyclo (Phe-Ser), cyclo (Ala-Pro), cyclo (Ala-Phe), cyclo (4-HyP-Phe), cyclo (L-Phe-D-Pro), cyclo (D-Phe-D-Pro), cyclo (6-HyP-Phe), cycle (Gln-Pro), and cycle (Asn-Leu);

Nine other compounds: N-acetyl-phenylalanine, adenosine, phenyldiethanol, o-hydroxy-phenylethanol, benzoic acid, p-methoxybenzoic acid, m-methoxybenzoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, and 3-pyridinecarboxylic acid.

-Naringenin, cyclophellitol, sakuranetin, aromadendrin, folerogrenin, eriodictyol, coumarin, scopoletin, phelligridins, phelligridimers, inniaris A-D, hispolon, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, protocatechualdehyde, syringic acid, protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, isoerosterone, octadecyl ferulate.

Spore Print – White

Therapeutic Actions

Antioxidant, anti-tumor, anti-viral, hepato-protective, immune-stimulating, immune-modulating

Medicinal Uses

  • Prevented stroke in mice1
  • Hispolon is an active phenolic compound found in Ignarius and when isolated, had significant anti-tumor activity. A study2 was done to look at its effect on lung cancer. Hispolon was found to induce cell apoptosis and GO/G1 cell cycle arrest.
  • Hispolon has also been found to exert anticancer effects on Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML).4
  • The water extract is effective against influenza virus A and B, including H1N1, H2N3, and the Avian flu. The extract interferes with events in the virus replication cycle including viral attachment to the target cell.3
  • Ethanol extracts inhibited the proliferation of human hepatocarcinoma cell lines as well as rat heart vascular endothelial cells. When the extract was given in combination with Chemotherapy there was a synergistic effect in the inhibition of the proliferation of hepatocarcinoma.6 This study as well as others 5 suggest hepatoprotective qualities in the ethanol extract.
  • The biologically active compounds that modulate the immune system have been found to have therapeutic value for slowing multiple sclerosis progression in mice.7 After three weeks of being injected with the extract every other day, demyelination and immune cell infiltrations in the spinal cord were examined and there was a significant decrease in the daily incidence rate and clinical score of autoimmune encephalomyelitis.
  • Used as an emmenagogue, invigorates blood circulation9
  • Fruiting body inhibits neuraminidase from H3N2, H1N1, and H5N1 influenza viruses¹¹ (neuraminidase in an important glycoprotein in influenza viruses that cleaves sialic acid from the infected cell surface and releases virus progeny allowing it to then infect other cells – and so neuraminidase inhibitors are well sought after in medicine)

Ethnobotanical Use:

Native Americans made elaborate boxes to hold the ashes of the fungus. These boxes have been collected from many sites along the Alaskan coast. The boxes were made from exceptional materials of bone, ivory and wood. The fungus was burnt to an ash, which was mixed with tobacco and chewed. It was reported that this gave it a powerful kick. It is known now that the alkaline quality of the ash quickened the effects of the nicotine entering the bloodstream. This species is used rather than other polypores because the Native Americans recognized this as having unique properties and gave a kick that other species did not.8 The Yup’ik of Western Alaska called the fungus arak, and the mixture of tobacco and the ash iqmik – “thing to put in the mouth” It has been reported that 52% of first nations people used this fungus.

Arctic tribes boiled the fruiting body and drank the decoction to soothe the stomach.9


One Study10 looked at the best way to extract polysaccharides from the mycelium, and found the optimal conditions for the highest polysaccharide yield were from an aqueous solution of 70 degrees Celsius, for 1.5 hours and the ratio of mycelia to water being 1:6.2.

When I have made extracts with this mushroom I have found it is easiest to use the fresh mushroom, it becomes very woody and hard to process when it is in it’s whole dry form. Look at extraction process for F. pinicola for instructions.

Work Cited

  1. Suabjakyong, Papawee, Ryotaro Saiki, Leo J. L. D. Van Griensven, Kyohei Higashi, Kazuhiro Nishimura, Kazuei Igarashi, and Toshihiko Toida. “Polyphenol Extract from Phellinus Igniarius Protects against Acrolein Toxicity In Vitro and Provides
  1. Qiuge Wu, Yan Kang, Hui Zhang, Hongmin Wang, Yuanhua Liu, Jing Wang, The anticancer effects of hispolon on lung cancer cells, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Volume 453, Issue 3, 24 October 2014, Pages 385-391,
  1. Lee, Sangmoo, et al. “The Anti-Influenza Virus Effect Of Phellinus Igniarius Extract.” Journal Of Microbiology (Seoul, Korea)51.5 (2013): 676-681. MEDLINE Complete. Web. 13 May 2015.
  1. Pei-Ching Hsiao, Yi-Hsien Hsieh, Jyh-Ming Chow, Shun-Fa Yang, Michael Hsiao, Kuo-Tai Hua, Chien-Huang Lin, Hui-Yu Chen, and Ming-Hsien Chien “Hispolon Induces Apoptosis through JNK1/2-Mediated Activation of a Caspase-8, -9, and -3-Dependent Pathway in Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) Cells and Inhibits AML Xenograft Tumor Growth in Vivo” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2013 61 (42), 10063-10073
  1. Wu, Xiuli, et al. “[Studies On Constituents Of Cultures Of Fungus Phellinus Igniarius].” Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi = Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi = China Journal Of Chinese Materia Medica36.7 (2011): 874-880. MEDLINE Complete. Web. 13 May 2015.
  1. Tuzz-Ying Song, Hung-Chi Lin, Nae-Cherng Yang, Miao-Lin Hu, Antiproliferative and antimetastatic effects of the ethanolic extract of Phellinus igniarius (Linnearus: Fries) Quelet, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 115, Issue 1, 4 January 2008, Pages 50-56
  1. Li, Lan, Guang Wu, Bo Young Choi, Bong Geom Jang, Jin Hee Kim, Gi Ho Sung, Jae Youl Cho, Sang Won Suh, and Hyoung Jin Park. “A Mushroom Extract Piwep from Phellinus Igniarius Ameliorates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by Inhibiting Immune Cell Infiltration in the Spinal Cord.” BioMed Research International2014 (2014): 1-11. Web.
  1. Blanchette, Robert A. “Fungus ashes and tobacco: the use of Phellinus ignarius by the indigenous people of North America” Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota, St. Paul. Feb 2001: 15 (1)
  1. Rogers, Robert Dale. The Fungal Pharmacy: The Complete Guide to Medicinal Mushrooms and Lichens of North America. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic, 2011. Print.
  1. Xia Guo, Xiang Zou, Min Sun, Optimization of extraction process by response surface methodology and preliminary characterization of polysaccharides from Phellinus igniarius, Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 80, Issue 2, 12 April 2010, Pages 344-349
  2. Kim J, Kim D, Hwang BS, et al. Mycobiology Neuraminidase Inhibitors from the Fruiting Body of Phellinus igniarius. 2016:117-120.

The Snow Flower

Sarcodes Sanguinae

(Resembling Flesh, Blood Red)

Snow Plant or Snow Flower

Family: Ericaceae (Madrone family) Sub-Family: Monotropoideae (Indian Pipe family)

snow flower

The Snow Flower. Back in the day, when it still snowed in Tahoe, and the pine-needled humus would have a layer of snow in the Spring, I would look forward to this brilliant red being that would erect from the earth surface. The snow is mild now, but this crimson beauty still comes up, yet the contrast against the white of the snow is missed. A fitting plant to talk about on this blog being that although it is a plant, it is a saprophytic plant, getting its nutrients from the mycorrhizal fungi rather than partaking in photosynthesis, as green leaved plants do. The Snow Flower is most often seen near conifers, Ponderosa Pine, Jefferey Pine, Sugar Pine, etc. It is found here because it can’t live without them – a very one-sided and secretive connection. It is not directly parasitic to the tree, but it feeds on the trees relationship with mycorrhizal fungi. The fungi and the conifer have a mutualistic relationship; the fungus provides minerals and other earthly delights for the tree, while the tree provides sugars for the fungus – the Snow flower then gets it’s nutrients from this fungi.

snow plant

John Muir writes of Sarcodes in 1912:

“The snow plant is more admired by tourists than any other in California. It is red, fleshy and watery and looks like a gigantic asparagus shoot. Soon after the snow is off the ground it rises through the dead needles and humus in the pine and fir woods like a bright glowing pillar of fire. In a week or so it grows to a height of eight or twelve inches with a diameter of an inch and a half or two inches ,then its long fringed bracts curl aside, allowing the twenty or thirty five lobed, bell-shaped flowers to pen and look straight out from the axis. It is said to grow up through the snow on the contrary, it always waits until the ground is warm, though with other early flowers it is occasionally buried or half buried for a day or two by spring storms. The entire plant-flowers, bracts, stems, scales, and roots-is fiery red. Its color could appeal to one’s blood. Nevertheless, it is a singularly cold and unsympathetic plant. Everybody admires it as a wonderful curiosity, but nobody loves it as lilies, violets, roses, daisies are loved. Without fragrance it stands beneath the pines and firs lonely and silent, as if unacquainted with any other plant in the world; never moving the wildest storms; rigid as if lifeless, through covered with beautiful rosy flowers.”

In the New York Medical Eclectic, Volume 6, Issue 10 (1879):

“The Sow Plant, a Flower of Strange Beauty.

One of the Grandest objects which meets the eye of the traveler in our mountains is the exquisite plant, the Snow Plant of the Sierras-the Sarcodes sanguinea of John Torrey, the botanist. It is an inhabitant only to the higher Sierras, being rarely found below an altitude of 4,000 feet, and its glorious crimson spike of flowers may be seen early in May, forcing itself through the snows which at that period cling about the sides of our pine forests. The portion of this plant which is visible above the soil is bright rosy crimson in color and presents the very strongest contrast to the dark green of the pines shimmer of the snow. Its root is succulent, thick, and abundantly free of moisture, attaching itself to the roots of other plants, principally to the species of the pine family…the Deer are exquisitely fond of it, and it is not an uncommon circumstance to find a number of the plants uprooted and robbed of the fleshy part of their underground growth…”

Food and Medicine

I have always been told, since I was a child, to not mess with the Snow Flower. I never knew why exactly, in fact I thought maybe it was poisonous. The real reason is that it only grows around the Sierras and it is a rare and protected plant – although I will talk about its history of use as food and medicine, it would be wise to pocket this information for your own edification and choose a different plant for these uses, that is not as rare.

The Snow Flower, is in fact edible and can be cooked like asparagus.

I can deduce from the ethnobotanical uses that it has an analgesic effect as well as soothing epithelial tissues. There is documentation of a decoction of the leaves and stem to treat ulcerated sores, irritated skin, and toothaches. The docterine of signatures would suggest its use as a blood tonic, and a decoction has been used in this way. Some Native Americans also dried and powdered this plant to relieve toothaches and other mouth pains.

How to Make Amadou Mushroom Felt

Fomes fomentarius

(Tinder, Used for Tinder)

Tinder polypore, False tinder polypore, Amadou, Iceman fungus, Hoof fungus, Hoof Conk, Tsuriganetabe


Where there is Birch, there is F. fomentarius. North-Eastern United States, Alaska, Northern Mainland Europe. Found on Hardwoods.

There is usually only one or two fruiting bodies found per tree. It is a perennial, parasitic mushroom. Each layer of tubing represents a new year of growth. The thin crust is striped with various shades of grey, while the flesh is dark golden-brown, and the pore surface is pale grey to white. The flesh of the fruiting body is also known as the trauma layer. It is this trauma layer that is used as a natural gauze, tinder, and amadou felt.

Spore print – pale yellow

Ethnobotanical Uses

Amadou, derived from a Northern French dialect, meaning “amorous”, or “inflames life”. This meaning is exemplified in the mushrooms historical use as tinder. This word also translates to the english word, spunk, meaning courage, bravery or determination, originally meant spark. (Spunk is a combination of spark and funk). Interestingly, the fungal essence is used for the burnt out artist, to help them get their spark back.

A 5000 year old Iceman, Otzi, was found with this polypore. In 1991 hikers found his preserved remains in a glacier in the Otzal Alps between Austria and Italy. It is thought that he was carrying this mushroom to preserve fire, use as insect repellent, and as his first aid kit.

The name, Fomes fomentarius means, “to use as tinder”. It is extremely flammable, but has a nice slow burn, perfect for long travels through the mountains. Additionally, and a perk for the insect-loved traveler, the smoke produced by the burning of this mushroom works as an excellent insect repellent. In addition to flame and insect deterrent, this mushroom is a powerful hemostat.

There is documentation of Hippocrates using F. fomentarius as a styptic in the fifth century BC. Also used as a styptic by surgeons, barbers and dentists, giving it the name “agaric of the surgeons”.  There is also note of the Okanagan-Olville native Americans using this as a styptic, a wound dressing, and a cauterizing agent. They would place a piece of the softened amadou layer over the affected area and ignite. This amadou layer was also used as a wound dressing and styptic throughout Europe. In a German speaking Alpine area in Europe, where this mushroom was called Wundschwamm, F. fomentarius was sold in pharmacies in the form of styptic bandages. While carving the mushroom’s crust off to expose this styptic layer of amadou, I sliced my finger with a serrated knife and there was heavy bleeding. I quickly wrapped a piece of the amadou around my finger. My finger stopped bleeding within minutes, and the amadou stayed on my finger as a nice bandage.

mushroom bandage

This mushroom was also used in ritual smoking ceremonies, in Germany and Austria, and by the Khanty people in West Siberia. They would burn the fruiting bodies to obtain smoke when a person died. The smoke would burn as to avoid any influence of the deceased on the living. This smoke has also been used similar to moxibustion. The ignited mushroom is placed over different parts of the body to warm the meridians, helping with the movement of blood and qi.

Currently studied as a treatment for esophagus, gastric and uterine carcinoma. Recent research shows distinct antibiotic activity against Bacillus subtillis and staphylococcus aureus with antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus.

Also, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities have been documented.


How to make the Amadou 

The layers of F. fomentarius
Cross Section of F. fomentarius

Sharp serrated carving knife

Cutting board

Hammer, ideally wide headed, like a Leatherman’s hammer

Hammering surface

Washing Soda Solution (sodium carbonate)

  1. Cut off the crust of the mushroom


This is done carefully with a sharp knife, serrated works well. You want to be careful here to not cut off too much of the trauma layer.

  1. Cut the off the tubes*


This is done by making deep cuts in the tubes and then cracking them apart, and peeling them away from the trauma layer, careful to not peel too much of the trauma layer off with them. Remaining tubes can be cut away with a knife.

3. Soak trauma layer over night to a week in washing soda solution, or boil for at least 20 minutes


  1. Pound damp trauma layer


5. Soak again, pound again, and repeat until desired thickness reached.

6. Let the amadou felt (trauma layer) dry out, and use, as you like!



Don’t throw away the mushroom parts that have been removed from the trauma layer. Simmer these in water and drink as an immune boosting tea, or use the tubes as a candlewick.


Resources for Amadou products:

Resource for F. Fomentarius mushrooms:

Hericium sp.

Hericium abietis, Hericium americanum, Hericium erinaceus

(Like a Hedgehog)

Bear’s Head Mushroom, Lion’s Mane, Western Coral Hedgehog


Walking through the dank darkness of the Northwest forest, and a snowball like specimen comes into view. A strange time of year to find a snowball in the forest, you walk closer and see this pearly white beauty of a toothed mushroom. It smells sweet and bitter and you can’t help but drool. The mushroom feels hearty and meaty and calls to you, there is no doubt it will be delicious. The teeth hang down like icicles and let off the spores from the tips.


Found throughout North America. The fruiting bodies are usually found as individuals on fallen conifer logs, often Douglas Fir, Pseudotsuga menzeseii, in the Pacific Northwest.

This is a parasitic mushroom, slowly killing it’s host.

Hericium abietis is usually found in California, but does come up to the Pacific Northwest. Hericium americanum is also found here, and I have come across H. erinaceus once or twice.

Known active Constituents (Based on Hericium erinaceus research)

  • Cyathane derivatives
  • Erinacines, Hericenones
  • Beta-glucans
  • Galactoxyloglucan
  • Glucoxylan
  • Mannoglucoxylan
  • Xylan
  • Ergosterol-provitamin D2

Spore Print –White

Therapeutic actions

Styptic, immune stimulating, immune modulating, nerve tonic, neuro-regenerative, anti-microbial, Nootropic

Medicinal Uses

  • H. erinaceus has significant anti fatigue activity; increases tissue glycogen content and antioxidant enzyme activity. Decreases blood lactic acid, serum urea nitrogen1
  • Aqueous extract contains neuroactive compounds that induce nerve growth factor synthesis. neurotrophic factors. Important in promoting the growth and differentiation of neurons. 2
  • Daily oral administration of aqueous H. erinaceus could promote the regeneration of injured peroneal nerve in early stage recovery3
  • There is evidence of Nerve cells stimulation and enhancement of cognitive abilities.
  • Lull GI inflammation and cool down ulcers
  • Treats pancreatitis, caused by digestive enzymes performing their duty in the wrong location – pancreas instead of small intestine.
  • Has shown to be an effective therapy for intestinal, stomach and pancreatic cancers, it is chemo-protective.5
  • Lowers blood sugar, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels
  • Stimulates nerve growth factor
  • Neutrophic factors are essential to maintain and organize neurons functionality; hence neutrophic factor like substances or their inducers may be applied to the treatments of neurodegenerative diseases.
  • NGF levels are decreased in the basal forebrains of alzheimer’s patients.
  • Hericium sp. Aqueous extract has also shown to discourage the development of plaque in the brain – another reason why it could be a helpful therapy for alzheimer’s disease
  • Showed to help diabetic neuropathy
  • Intake has the possibility to reduce depression and anxiety through the NGF enhancing action.4 specifically for menopausal females.


  • Used for stomach ailments
  • Used for treatment of GI cancer and gastric ulcers


Cool, tonic


Dual Extract – See F. pinicola

This one you can eat! Here is an easy recipe:


Hericium sp.

1 yellow onion, sliced

2 cloves garlic, chopped

2 Tbs Ghee, coconut oil, or butter

Salt or tamari to taste


Chop up the mushroom

Warm up coconut oil, ghee, or butter on a skillet over medium-high heat

Add the mushroom

When it looks like the mushroom has given off most of its moisture, add sliced onion and chopped garlic until the mushrooms are brown and the onion is soft

Sprinkle with some sea salt, tamari, or truffle salt.


Work Cited

  1. Liu, J., C. DU, Y. Wang, and Z. Yu. “Anti-fatigue Activities of Polysaccharides Extracted from Hericium Erinaceus.” Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine9.2 (2015): 483-87. Web.
  1. Lai, Puei-Lene, Murali Naidu, Vikineswary Sabaratnam, Kah-Hui Wong, Rosie Pamela David, Umah Rani Kuppusamy, Noorlidah Abdullah, and Sri Nurestri A. Malek. “Neurotrophic Properties of the Lion’s Mane Medicinal Mushroom, Hericium Erinaceus (Higher Basidiomycetes) from Malaysia.” International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms15.6 (2013): 539-54. Web.
  1. Wong, Kah-Hui, Murali Naidu, Rosie Pamela David, Robiah Bakar, and Vikineswary Sabaratnam. “Neuroregenerative Potential of Lion’s Mane Mushroom, Hericium Erinaceus (Bull.: Fr.) Pers. (Higher Basidiomycetes), in the Treatment of Peripheral Nerve Injury (Review).” International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms14.5 (2012): 427-46. Web
  1. Nagano, Mayumi, Kuniyoshi Shimizu, Ryuichiro Kondo, Chickako Hayashi, Daigo Sato, Katsuyuki Kitagawa, and Koichiro Ohnuki. “Reduction of Depression and Anxiety by 4 Weeks Hericium Erinaceus Intake.” Biomedical Research31.4 (2010): 231-37. Web.
  1. Li, G., K. Yu, and F. Li. “Anticancer Potential of Hericium Erinaceus Extracts against Human Gastrointestinal Cancers.” Anticancer Potential of Hericium Erinaceus Extracts against Human Gastrointestinal Cancers. N.p., 12 Mar. 2014. Web. 27 Mar. 2015.
  2. Rogers, Robert Dale. The Fungal Pharmacy: The Complete Guide to Medicinal Mushrooms and Lichens of North America. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic, 2011. Print.
  1. Stamets, Paul, and C. Dusty Wu Yao. Mycomedicinals: An Informational Booklet on Medicinal Mushrooms. Olympia, WA: MycoMedia, 2002. Print.

Tremella mesenterica

(To tremble, resembling the mesentery)

Witch’s butter, Yellow Brain Fungus


This mushroom dries up with the sun and rehydrates with the rain. Dab it all over your face and feel the cooling, moistening properties. As the rain hydrates the Tremella, our organs, inside and out, are soothed and moistened too. An orange blob of an organism, with petal-like folds, it resembles the mesentery. Mesentery is the tissue embracing the intestines, branching with veins and arteries that supply the intestines with blood. It is not a surprise then that T. mesenterica soothes the gut. This mushroom, similar to other fungi and plants of the dank forests, has an affinity for the lungs, moistening, cooling, and lightly expectorant.


  • Often found on logs, Douglas fir, Pseudotsuga menzeseii and Hemlock, Tsuga heterophylla, in the PNW and temperate and tropical deciduous forests across the world.
  • A parasitic fungus, grows on the mycelium of other fungi mycelium, typically the of the Peniophora genus.
  • After heavy rainfall, Fall through winter

Active Known Constituents

  • -Glucuronoxylomannan 1,3 alpha-glucan
  • – Epitope (Beta-D-glucuronosyl)
  • – 1,3-beta-1,6-beta glucan
  • – Chitin
  • – Tremellastin
  • – xylose
  • -mannonse
  • -glucurmic acid

Spore Print – White or pale yellow

Therapeutic actions

Immune-stimulating, immune-modulating, radiation protection, hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory, hepato-protective, anti-allergenic, demulcent, hypocholesterolemic, anti-diabetic, anti-tussive, anti-asthmatic


Medicinal Uses

  • Pharmacologically active polysaccharides make up the bulk of the fruit body, 60-90%, while with other medicinal mushrooms the polysaccharides make up a much smaller part of the biomass, 10-30%.
  • Polysaccharides significantly inhibit cancer cell DNA synthesis and growth in mice
  • Rich in provitamin D, Vitamin D deficiency is associated with depression and obesity.
  • Polysaccharides are made up of hemicellulose, a soluble fiber, having a hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic effect.
  • The polysaccharides are known for their water holding capacities
  • Good for skin elasticity – brew fruiting bodies as a thick gelatinous tea and apply to the skin with a cotton pad. Rinse out after 30 minutes.
  • Anti-oxidant and immunomodulating, the polysaccharides stimulate macrophage enzyme activity3
  • Could be used to treat stomach ulcers. Soothing to the GI and has also shown to be effective against H. pylori6
  • Increased immune function with type 1 diabetic mice2
  • One study, showed a decrease in blood sugar to normal levels for 24 hours4
  • Ethanol extract caused apoptosis in human lung carcinoma epithelial cells.1


  • Cooling, moistens the lungs
  • Nourishes the lung, stomach and kidney
  • Strengthens bones, helps maintain ideal weight, and provides proper moisture to the skin
  • lung yin deficiency. Mild expectorant


  • It was a question if this was even a mushroom, or a type of plant. Or some extraterrestrial organism plopped on the earth, maybe Alien spit? I could see Alien spit looking like this.
  • If the mushroom was found on your door, it was said that there was a curse put on your household, and the only way to rid of the curse is to stab the mushroom with a knife multiple times…this folklore comes from the West. Whereas the mushroom as been used as medicine in Asia for millennia.



Candied Witch’s Butter 


4 Large pieces of Witch’s Butter

2 C Sugar

2 C Water


Heat water and sugar together until the sugar is dissolved

Add mushroom and simmer on low-medium for about an hour, or until the syrup has thickened to a desired consistency

Store in the refrigerator and eat like gummy bears or dehydrate for a crunchy sweet treat.


– Make a tea, boiling it in water for at least an hour

– Add to soups and stews, doesn’t taste like much, but an easy way to get medicine in!

Work Cited

  1. Chen, Nan-Yin, and Hsi-Huai Lai. “Induction of Apoptosis in Human Lung Carcinoma A549 Epithelial Cells with an Ethanol Extract of Tremella Mesenterica.” National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web. 03 Mar. 2015.
  1. Lo, Hui-Chen, Tai-Hao Hsu, Chien-Hsing Lee, Fang-Yi Lin, and Solomonp Wasser. “The Fruiting Bodies, Submerged Culture Biomass, and Acidic Polysaccharide Glucuronoxylomannan of Yellow Brain Mushroom Tremella Mesenterica Modulate the Immunity of Peripheral Blood Leukocytes and Splenocytes in Rats with Impaired Glucose Tolerance.”Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine0.0 (2014): n. pag. Web.
  1. Jeong, Sang-Chul, Sundar Rao Koyyalamudi, J. Margaret Hughes, Cheang Khoo, Trevor Bailey, Karthik Marripudi, Jong Pil Park, Jin Hee Kim, and Chi-Hyun Song. “Antioxidant and Immunomodulating Activities of Exo-and Endopolysaccharide Fractions from Submerged Mycelia Cultures of Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms.” International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms15.3 (2013): 251-66. Web.
  1. Rahar, Sandeep, Navneet Nagpal, Gaganshah Singh, Gaurav Swami, and Manishaa Nagpal. “Preparation, Characterization, and Biological Properties of β-glucans.” Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research2.2 (2011): 94. Web.
  1. Rogers, Robert Dale. The Fungal Pharmacy: The Complete Guide to Medicinal Mushrooms and Lichens of North America. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic, 2011. Print.
  1. Lachter, Jesse, Yevgeny Yampolsky, Ronit Gafni-Schieber, and Solomon P. Wasser. “Yellow Brain Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Tremella Mesenterica Ritz.:Fr. (Higher Basidiomycetes), Is Subjectively but Not Objectively Effective for Eradication of Helicobacter Pylori: A Prospective Controlled Trial.” International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms 14.1 (2012): 55-63. Web.

Ganoderma oregonense

Oregon Reishi 


Late summer foliage and moss covered trees, follow the lichen and licorice fern trails from the treetops down the trunk and along the fallen logs. In a ravine full of Devil’s club and ground covered in wild ginger, a bright gem appears. The Ganoderma oregonense glows and calls you forward. This mushroom will sometimes share space with G. applanatum and F. pinicola. This annual fruiting body is hard to miss, in its short fruiting season it gets larger than a human head. When its shiny skin is covered in spores it resembles the G. applanatum, it too has a pore surface that bruises. This fruiting body is also often confused with F. pinicola, which does not have a varnished crust and does not bruise on the pore surface.

Ganoderma oregonense Spagyric.

One drop of Ganoderma Spagyric. It sits in the heart radiating outward across the chest, warming the diaphragm and you can’t help but to smile. The feeling of standing in the forest, dense with life, transformation and decay. Everything is OK, a reminder of the cyclical reality of the earth that is often forgotten. There is always change, there is always death. There is always a breakdown, and with that, a build up. Inspires you to show your bold colors as the Ganoderma does; it’s bright red beauty in a dank forest of browns and greens…such confidence, a reminder that it is Ok to stand out and shine.



Annual, Summer-Fall

Found on conifers, often Douglas Fir, Pseudotsuga menzeseii, and Hemlock, Tsuga heterophylla.

*Active Known Constituents

  • Ganoderic acids
  • Various glycans
  • 3-oxo-5a-lanosta-8,24-dien-21-oic acid – 3a-acetoxy-5a-lanosta-8,24-dien-21-oic acid ester b-D-glucoside

Spore Print –Brown

 Therapeutic Actions

Anti-­allergenic, anti-­inflammatory, anti-­oxidant, immune-­modulating, immune­‐ stimulating, anti-­viral,Hepato‐ protective, anti­tumor

*There is a lack of research on the Ganoderma oregonense. DNA sequencing of the more extensively researched, G. Tsugae, showed enough similarities to the G. Oregonense1 that we could postulate the medicinal actions of the latter through the research of the former.

 Medicinal Use

  • Triterpenes found in Ganoderma species suppress growth and invasive behavior of cancer cells, whereas the polysaccharides stimulate the immune system.
  • These polysaccharides have been termed “Ganopolys”. These Beta-glucans have immune-stimulating, immune-modulating, and anti-tumor activity. These activities correlate with higher molecular weight and lower levels of branching, because these molecules are more water soluble.7
  • “Ganopolys” affect the body’s immune system by activating macrophage activity, facilitating T- lymphocytes transferring to cytotoxic t cells, and enhancing the amount of B lymphocytes and natural killer cells.7
  • Triterpenes are bitter components, the bitter flavor conveys a hepatoprotective effect, also stimulates digestive enzyme production by the pancreas, and can help with sugar cravings.
  • Hepatoprotective effects were perhaps related to the ability to increase the activity of free radical scavenging enzymes and to raise the ability of antioxidation. Ganoderic acid, one of the triterpenoids found in G. Lucidum, G. Tsugae, G. applanatum, and G. Oregonense, was proven to be a potent inhibitor of β-glucuronidase activity, an indicator of hepatic damage1,3
  • Triterpenoids have high antioxidant activity, and have a cardioprotective effect in mice3
  • Activity against 3 cancer cell lines; lanostanoid and a sterol caused death by apoptosis and suggested that is was the sterol that possessed the cell cycle inhibition activity.2
  • Aqueous extract showed anti-tumor activity in human breast cancer cells and only showed a cyctotoxic effect on cancer cell lines, no cytotoxic effect found on normal cell lines6
  • Ganoderma compounds inhibit 5-alpha-keto-reducate activity that is responsible for the biosynthesis of dihydrotestosterone, this indicates a possible therapeutic value in prostate cancer.5
  • Chitin membrane used as a wound dressing known as sacchachitin and developed from the residue of the fruiting body.5,8
  • A pulpy white residue was tested as a skin substitute, wound healing was found faster than the commercialized skin substitute made from chitin from crab shell. Sacchachitin also showed to have strong antibacterial and antiviral activity.5
  • Alleviate bronchoalveolar inflammation by decreasing the amount of inflammatory cells and the secretion of inflammatory mediator into the lungs and airways, therapeutic application in allergic asthma.9
  • Increases oxygen absorbing capacity of alveoli in the lungs


Warming, nourishes the heart, disperses stuck energy, tonic, sweet, bitter

Preparation of Dual Extract

See F. pinicola preparation

Work Cited

  1. Hong, SG, and HS Jung. “Phylogenetic Analysis of Ganoderma Based on Nearly Complete Mitochondrial Small-subunit Ribosomal DNA Sequences.”National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web. 03 Mar. 2015.
  1. Kuo, Han-Peng, Shih-Chung Hsu, Chien-Chih Ou, Jhy-Wei Li, Hsiu-Hsueh Tseng, Tzu-Chao Chuang, Jah-Yao Liu, Shih-Jung Chen, Muh-Hwan Su, Yung-Chi Cheng, Wei-Yuan Chou, and Ming-Ching Kao. “Ganoderma Tsugae Extract Inhibits Growth of HER2-Overexpressing Cancer Cells via Modulation of HER2/PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway.” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine2013 (2013): 1-12. Web
  1. KY, Kuok, and Yeh CY. “The Triterpenoids of Ganoderma Tsugae Prevent Stress-induced Myocardial Injury in Mice.” Molecular Nutrition and Food Research57.10 (2013): 1892-896. Web. 25 Mar. 2015.
  1. Huang, Chi-Chang, Wen-Ching Huang, Suh-Ching Yang, Chih-Chi Chan, and Wan-Teng Lin. “Ganoderma Tsugae Hepatoprotection against Exhaustive Exercise-Induced Liver Injury in Rats.” Molecules18.2 (2013): 1741-754. Web.
  1. Chuang, Chao-ming, HE Wang, and CH Chang. “Sacchachitin, a Novel Chitin-polysaccharide Conjugate Macromolecule Present in Ganoderma Lucidum: Purification, Composition, and Properties.” Pharmaceutical Biology52.1 (2013): 84-95. Web. 25 Mar. 2015
  1. Yue, GG, KP Fung, and GM Tse. “Comparative Studies of Various Ganoderma Species and Their Different Parts with Regard to Their Antitumor and Immunomodulating Activities In Vitro.” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine12.8 (2006): 777-89. EBSCO Host. Web. 25 Mar. 2015.
  1. Zhou, Xuanwei, Juan Lin, Yizhou Yin, Jingya Zhao, Xiaofen Sun, and Kexuan Tang. “Ganodermataceae: Natural Products and Their Related Pharmacological Functions.” The American Journal of Chinese Medicine35.04 (2007): 559. Web.
  1. Su, Ching-Hua, Chi-Shu Sun, Sheng-Wei Juan, Hsiu-O Ho, Chung-Hong Hu, and Ming-Thau Sheu. “Development of Fungal Mycelia as Skin Substitutes: Effects on Wound Healing and Fibroblast.” Biomaterials20.1 (1999): 61-68. Web.
  1. Chen, Miaw-Ling, and Bi-Fong Lin. “Effects of Triterpenoid-Rich Extracts of Ganoderma Tsugae on Airway Hyperreactivity and Th2 Responses in Vivo.” International Archives of Allergy and Immunology 143.1 (2007): 21-30. Web.